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Les jours tranquilles (1993, piano) André Gagnon (sheet music) avec partition

Les jours tranquilles (piano) André Gagnon avec partition

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André Gagnon

André Gagnon (2 August 1936 – 3 December 2020) was a Canadian composer, conductor, arranger, and actor, known for his fusion of classical and pop styles, including compositions Neiges, Smash, Chevauchée, Surprise, Donna, and Mouvements in the disco and pop fields. Gagnon also composed for television, including La Souris Verte, Vivre en ce Pays, Format 60, Format 30,Techno-Flash, and Les Forges de Saint-Maurice as well as for theatre with such productions as La Poudre aux Yeux, Doña Rosita, Terre d’Aube, La Dame de Chez Maxim’s, and Wouf-Wouf. Some of his most notable songs are “Pour les Amants”, “Turluteries”, and “Mes Quatre Saisons”.

Gagnon was born in Saint-Pacôme-de-Kamouraska, Quebec, Canada.[3][4] The youngest of nineteen children, Gagnon began composing at the age of six and according to the Canadian Encyclopedia, “He took theory lessons with Léon Destroismaisons in Ste. Anne-de-la-Pocatière from 1952-53 and studied at the Conservatoire de musique à Montréal with Germaine Malépart (piano), Clermont Pépin (composition), and Gilberte Martin (solfège) from 1957 to 1961.”[2]

Career

According to Gagnon’s official website, “In 1974, André Gagnon released Saga, his first album, composed solely of original instrumental pieces” .

In 1975, the album Neiges stayed on the American Billboard’s Top 10 for twenty-four weeks and sold 700,000 copies worldwide. In May 1976, Gagnon did four concerts in Mexico and in September of the same year, Neiges was released in New York under the title Driven Snow. In 1977, Neiges won a Juno award for the most purchased album in Canada while Gagnon’s album Le Saint-Laurent rapidly reached 100,000 sold copies. In 1978, André Gagnon was made an officer of the Order of Canada.

In the fall of 1979, Gagnon received his first Félix, an award created by the Quebecois music industry in the instrumental category for the album Le Saint-Laurent. He also began to add film scores to his repertoire, among them the soundtracks to Running (1979), the John Huston film Phobia (1980), and The Hot Touch (1981), directed by Roger Vadim. Gagnon went on world tour in 1981 to the United States, Venezuela, Mexico, Greece, and Romania. During this year, he also composed original music for the film Tell Me That You Love Me, a production of Astral Films. In October, he recorded Impressions in the famous Abbey Road studio.

In February 1990, the opera Nelligan was released, for which Gagnon wrote the music. The opera was presented first at the Grand Theatre of Quebec and then the Place of the Arts of Montreal and finally at the National Centre of the Arts of Ottawa. Following the opera’s Canadian release was the release of the studio-recorded double album, Nelligan.

In January 1992, Gagnon composed the music for the film The Pianist. In 1999, the album Juliette Pomerleau was released. In 2011, the album Les chemins ombragés was certified a gold album having sold 40,000 copies.

Gagnon also composed music for many artists, such as Diane Dufresne (Le 304), Renée Claude (Je suis une femme d’aujourd’hui, Ballade pour mes vieux jours) and Nicole Martin (Mannequin).

Awards and recognition

Juno awards

He has received Juno nominations in several other years.

Government honours

Gagnon was appointed an Officer of the Order of Canada in 1978 and an Officer of the National Order of Quebec in 2018.

Discography

Albums

YearTitle
1964André Gagnon – Piano et orchestre
1965Léveillée-Gagnon
1966Une voix, deux pianos
1968Pour les amants
1969Notre amour
1969Mes quatre saisons
1971Let It Be Me
1972Les Turluteries
1972Encore
1973Projection / Les forges de St-Maurice
1973Les grands succes d’André Gagnon
1974Saga
1975Neiges
1977Le Saint-Laurent
1978Movements
1981Left Turn
1982Les grands succès/Greatest Hits
1983Impressions
1986Comme dans un film
1986Des dames de coeur
1990Nelligan (with Michel Tremblay)
1992Noël
1993Les jours tranquilles
1993Presque blue
1994Romantique
1995Piano
1996Twilight Time
1996Musique (Coffret de collection)
1997André Gagnon au Centre Molson
1997Éden
1997La collection émergence
1999Juliette Pomerleau
1999Printemps
1999Été
1999Automne
1999Hiver
2001Histoires rêvées
2003Piano solitude
2010Les chemins ombragés
2011Dans le silence de la nuit (Christmas album)
2016Les voix intérieures

Singles

YearTitle
1968“Pour les amants”
1969“Chanson pour Petula” b/w “La fête”
1971“Rainbow”
1975“Wow” b/w “Ta samba” (#4 CAN)
1976“Surprise” b/w “Douce image”
1977“Donna” b/w “Holiday Feeling”
1978“Smash” b/w “Rendez-vous”
1977“Weekend” (#16 CAN AC)
1980“A Ride to Ville Émard” b/w “Beautiful Days”
1981“Left Turn” b/w “Two Days in the Country”
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Film Music

As time goes by – Herman Hupfeld (piano solo) with sheet music

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As time goes by – Herman Hupfeld (piano solo) with sheet music

As Time Goes By

is a song written by Herman Hupfeld in 1931. It became famous when it was featured in the 1942 Warner Bros. film Casablanca performed by Dooley Wilson as Sam. The song was voted No. 2 on the AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs special, commemorating the best songs in film (only surpassed by “Over the Rainbow” by Judy Garland). The song has since become the signature tune of Warner Bros. and used as such in the production logos at the beginning of many Warner Bros. films since 1999, as well as the closing logos to most Warner Bros. Television Studios shows since 2003. It was also the title and theme song of the 1990s British romantic comedy series As Time Goes By.

“As Time Goes By” is most famous from the film Casablanca (1942). It was originally written for the Broadway show Everybody’s Welcome (1931), which ran for 139 performances. In 1931, the song was a modest hit, with versions issued on Victor, Columbia, Brunswick and the dime store labels. The song was featured in the unproduced play Everybody Comes To Rick’s, which was the basis for the Casablanca story and script. Against Max Steiner‘s wishes (he wrote the music for the film), it was decided to feature the 1931 song in the 1942 film. It has been well documented that the producers considered dropping the song in post-production, but since Ingrid Bergman had been given the part of Maria in Paramount’s For Whom the Bell Tolls and had cut her hair for the part, it would not have been possible to reshoot any of her scenes with the song being performed, or to have her request that Sam play a different song.

The AFI listed it among its “top 100” movie songs. National Public Radio included it in its “NPR 100”, a 1999 list of the most important American musical works of the 20th century as compiled by NPR’s music editors.[2] The song is a popular reflection of nostalgia and often used in films and series reflecting this feeling.

as time goes by sheet music pdf

Lyrics

You must remember this
A kiss is just a kiss
A sigh is just a sigh
The fundamental things apply
As time goes byAnd when two lovers woo
They still say “I love you”
On that you can rely
No matter what the future brings
As time goes byMoonlight and love songs
Never out of date
Hearts full of passion
Jealousy and hate
Woman needs man, and man must have his mate
That no one can denyIt’s still the same old story
A fight for love and glory
A case of do or die
The world will always welcome lovers
As time goes byMoonlight and love songs
Never out of date
Hearts full of passion
Jealousy and hate
Woman needs man, and man must have his mate
That no one can denyIt’s still the same old story
A fight for love and glory
A case of do or die
The world will always welcome lovers
As time goes by

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Herman Hupfeld

Herman Hupfeld (February 1, 1894 – June 8, 1951) was an American songwriter whose most notable composition was “As Time Goes By“. He wrote both the lyrics and music.

Hupfeld was born in Montclair, New Jersey, the son of Fredericka (Rader), a church organist, and Charles Ludwig Hupfeld. He was sent to study violin in Germany at age 9. Returning to the United States he served in the military during World War I, and he entertained camps and hospitals during World War II. He never wrote a whole Broadway score, but he became known as a composer who could write a song to fit a specific scene within a Broadway show.

His best-known songs include “As Time Goes By”, “Sing Something Simple”, “Let’s Put Out the Lights (And Go to Sleep)”, “When Yuba Plays the Rumba on the Tuba”, “I’ve Gotta Get Up and Go to Work”, “Are You Making Any Money?”, “Savage Serenade”, “Down the Old Back Road”, “A Hut in Hoboken”, “Night Owl”, “Honey Ma Love”, “Baby’s Blue”, “Untitled” and “The Calinda”.

While not known as a public performer, Hupfeld was featured on a Victor Young & His Orchestra 78 recorded on January 22, 1932, singing and playing piano on two of his compositions, “Goopy Geer (he plays piano and he plays by ear)” and “Down the Old Back Road”.

Hupfeld never married and, with rare exceptions, he remained living in the family home with his mother in his hometown of Montclair, New Jersey, only traveling as far as New York City in his entire life. He died in 1951 of a stroke at the age of 57 and was buried at Mount Hebron Cemetery in Montclair. His mother died 6 years later aged 90.

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The Piano – Big my Secret (Michael Nyman) with sheet music

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The Piano – Big my Secret (Michael Nyman) with sheet music

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Michael Nyman: The Composer

Michael Laurence Nyman, CBE (born 23 March 1944) is an English composer of minimalist music, pianist, librettist and musicologist, known for numerous film scores (many written during his lengthy collaboration with the filmmaker Peter Greenaway), and his multi-platinum soundtrack album to Jane Campion‘s The Piano. He has written a number of operas, including The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat; Letters, Riddles and Writs; Noises, Sounds & Sweet Airs; Facing Goya; Man and Boy: Dada; Love Counts; and Sparkie: Cage and Beyond. He has written six concerti, five string quartets, and many other chamber works, many for his Michael Nyman Band. He is also a performing pianist. Nyman prefers to write opera over other forms of music.

Nyman was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2008 Birthday Honours.

Nyman was awarded an honorary doctorate (DLitt) from The University of Warwick on 30 January 2007. At the degree ceremony, The University of Warwick Brass Society and Chamber Choir, conducted by Paul McGrath, premiered a specially composed procession and recession fanfare by Nyman.

In 2015, he was awarded the Golden Duke for Lifetime Achievement, the special award of the 6th Odessa International Film Festival.

Michael Nyman: The Piano

The Piano is the original soundtrack, on the Virgin Records label, of the 1993 Academy Award-winning film The Piano. The original score was composed by Michael Nyman and is his twentieth album release. Despite being called a “soundtrack”, this is a partial score re-recording, as Nyman himself also performs the piano on the album (whereas the film version is performed by lead actress Holly Hunter). The music is performed by the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Nyman with Michael Nyman Band members John Harle, David Roach and Andrew Findon performing the prominent saxophone work.

The album was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score (but lost to the score of Heaven & Earth) and the BAFTA Award for Best Score (lost to the score of Schindler’s List).

The album design and illustration are by Dave McKean.

The main theme is based on a traditional Scottish melody titled “Gloomy Winter’s Noo Awa”.

“The purpose of the Composer’s Cut series is to present music from my soundtracks in a state of continuous evolution. As I transferred particular cues from film to concert hall both musical structures changed and performance styles developed, enabling the music, perhaps, to realise its true potential. So these recordings represent the Michael Nyman Band’s state-of-performance as of spring 2005.” – MN August 2005

Michael Nyman’s score for Jane Campion’s 1993 film The Piano is one of the most successful film soundtracks of all time. The film itself won the prestigious Palme d’Or at the Cannes film festival in 1993 and went on to win several Oscars at the 1994 Academy Awards. Holly Hunter’s role as Ada the film’s central role was that of an elective mute who chose to communicate via her playing. If having the music feature so prominently in a film was unusual, for the music to additionally convey the dialogue of the main character is unique. The soundtrack of the film went on to become a multi million seller. Perhaps surprisingly for music with such strong ties to its original source many of the pieces from The Piano were subsequently used in a variety of other settings in film, television and advertising making it some of the most performed/frequently heard orchestral music of the last twenty years.

The concert suite for The Piano as performed by The Michael Nyman Band also became a staple of the band’s concert repertoire and has been performed all over the world with the composer taking the roles of pianist and conductor. It is this expanded form of the soundtrack that Nyman chose to record as his own definitive edition in Abbey Road studios in April 2005. The piano pieces again form a dialogue, though here the dialogue is purely musical between pianist and orchestra rather having the piano pieces act as speech substitute as they did in the film. The resulting album is a wonderful example of film music transformed to a distinctive stand alone concert work.

Track Listing:

1.  The Heart Asks Pleasure First
2  To the Edge of the Earth
3.  A Wild and Distant Shore
4.  The Promise
5.  Here to There
6.  Big My Secret
7.  Silver-Fingered Fling
8.  Lost and Found
9.  The Embrace
10. The Mood That Passes Through You
11. All Imperfect Things
12. The Wounded
13. Dreams of a Journey
14. The Heart Asks Pleasure First/The Promise

Personnel

Music composed, arranged, conducted and produced by Michael Nyman

Music published by Michael Nyman Ltd./Chester Music Ltd.

with

The main theme in The Piano is based entirely on a traditional Scottish melody titled “Gloomy Winter’s Noo Awa”.

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Film Music

Alex North: Spartacus (Love Theme, 1960) – piano solo with sheet music

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Alex North: Spartacus (1960, Love Theme) – piano solo with sheet music)

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Alex North

Alex North (born Isadore Soifer, December 4, 1910 – September 8, 1991) was an American composer best known for his many film scores, including A Streetcar Named Desire (one of the first jazz-based film scores), Viva Zapata!, Spartacus, Cleopatra, and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? He was the first composer to receive an Honorary Academy Award, but never won a competitive Oscar despite fourteen nominations.

Early life

North was born Isadore Soifer in Chester, Pennsylvania, US, to Jewish parents Jesse and Baila (Bessie) who had left Russian Empire for the US around 1906. Jesse was from Bila Tserkva and Besie originated from Odessa (both cities are now in Ukraine). In the US, Jesse was a blacksmith, and Bessie ran a grocery store.

Career

North managed to integrate his modernism into typical film music leitmotif structure, rich with themes. One of these became the famous song, “Unchained Melody“. Nominated for fifteen Oscars but unsuccessful each time, North is one of only two film composers to receive the Lifetime Achievement Academy Award, the other being Ennio Morricone. North’s frequent collaborator as orchestrator was the avant-garde composer Henry Brant. He won the 1968 Golden Globe award for his music to The Shoes of the Fisherman (1968).

His best-known film scores include A Streetcar Named Desire, Death of a Salesman, Viva Zapata!, The Rainmaker, Spartacus, The Misfits, Cleopatra, Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Dragonslayer and Under the Volcano. His music for The Wonderful Country makes use of Mexican and American motifs.

His commissioned score for 2001: A Space Odyssey is notorious for having been discarded by director Stanley Kubrick. Although North later incorporated motifs from the rejected score for The Shoes of the Fisherman, Shanks and Dragonslayer, the score itself remained unheard until composer Jerry Goldsmith rerecorded it for Varèse Sarabande in 1993. In 2007, Intrada Records released the 1968 recording sessions on CD from North’s personal archives.

North was also commissioned to write a jazz score for Nero Wolfe, a 1959 CBS-TV series based on Rex Stout’s Nero Wolfe characters, starring William Shatner as Archie Goodwin and Kurt Kasznar as Nero Wolfe. A pilot and two or three episodes were filmed, but the designated time slot was, in the end, given to another series. North’s unheard score for Nero Wolfe and six recorded tracks on digital audio tape are in the UCLA Music Library Special Collections. He also wrote the music for various other television shows, such as the anthologies Climax! and Playhouse 90.

Though North is best known for his work in Hollywood, he spent years in New York writing music for the stage; he composed the score, for the original Broadway production of Death of a Salesman. It was in New York that he met Elia Kazan (director of Salesman), who brought him to Hollywood in the 1950s. North was one of several composers who brought the influence of contemporary concert music into film, in part marked by an increased use of dissonance and complex rhythms. But there is also a lyrical quality to much of his work which may be connected to the influence of Aaron Copland, with whom he studied.[citation needed]

His classical works include two symphonies and a Rhapsody for Piano, Trumpet obbligato and Orchestra. He was nominated for a Grammy Award for his score for the 1976 television miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man, and went on to score the sequel Rich Man, Poor Man Book II and the 1978 miniseries The Word. North is also known for his opening to the CBS television anthology series Playhouse 90 and the 1965 ABC television miniseries FDR.

He was recognized for his lifetime achievement in 2004 from the Sammy Film Music Awards.

In 2016, the Library of Congress added North’s 1951 recording of his score to “A Streetcar Named Desire” to its National Recording Registry.

North died on September 8, 1991 in Los Angeles, California. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered at sea.

Awards

The American Film Institute ranked North’s score for A Streetcar Named Desire #19 on their list of the greatest film scores. His scores for the following films were also nominated for the list:

North was nominated for fifteen Academy Awards throughout his career, one for Best Original Song, the rest in the Best Original Score category, making him the most-nominated composer to have never won. He was however awarded an Honorary Academy Award in 1986; he was the first composer to receive it.

Golden Globe Awards for Original Score:

ASCAP Award for Original Score:

Grammy Awards for Original Score:

Selected filmography

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The Disney songbook – Beauty and the Beast (Piano arr. by Jim Brickman)

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The Disney songbook – Beauty and the Beast (Piano arr. by Jim Brickman)

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Beauty and the Beast (1991 film)

Beauty and the Beast is a 1991 American animated musical romantic fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures. The 30th Disney animated feature film and the third released during the Disney Renaissance period, it is based on the 1756 French fairy tale of the same name by Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont (who was only credited in the French dub), and ideas from the 1946 French film of the same name directed by Jean Cocteau. Beauty and the Beast focuses on the relationship between the Beast (voice of Robby Benson), a prince who is magically transformed into a monster and his servants into household objects as punishment for his arrogance, and Belle (voice of Paige O’Hara), a young woman whom he imprisons in his castle. To break the curse, Beast must learn to love Belle and earn her love in return before the last petal falls from an enchanted rose or else the Beast will remain a monster forever. The film also features the voices of Richard White, Jerry Orbach, David Ogden Stiers, and Angela Lansbury.

Walt Disney first attempted to adapt Beauty and the Beast into an animated film during the 1930s and 1950s, but was unsuccessful. Following the success of The Little Mermaid (1989), Walt Disney Pictures decided to adapt the fairy tale, which Richard Purdum originally conceived as a non-musical. Disney chairman Jeffrey Katzenberg eventually dismissed Purdum’s idea and ordered that the film be a musical similar to The Little Mermaid instead. The film was directed by Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise in their directorial debut, with a screenplay by Linda Woolverton story first credited to Roger Allers. Lyricist Howard Ashman and composer Alan Menken wrote the film’s songs. Ashman, who additionally served as the film’s executive producer, died of AIDS-related complications six months before the film’s release, and the film is thus dedicated to his memory.

Beauty and the Beast premiered as an unfinished film at the New York Film Festival on September 29, 1991, followed by its theatrical release as a completed film at the El Capitan Theatre on November 13. The film grossed $331 million at the box office worldwide on a $25 million budget and received widespread critical acclaim for its romantic narrative, animation (particularly the ballroom scene), characters and musical numbers. Beauty and the Beast won the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, the first animated film to ever win that category.

It also became the first animated film to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture at the 64th Academy Awards, where it won the Academy Award for Best Original Score and Best Original Song for its title song and received additional nominations for Best Original Song and Best Sound. In April 1994, Beauty and the Beast became Disney’s first animated film to be adapted into a Broadway musical.

An IMAX version of the film was released in 2002, and included “Human Again“, a new five-minute musical sequence that had been cut from the film prior to its release, but was included in the 1994 musical. That same year, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry by the Library of Congress for being “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”. After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, the film was reissued in 3D in 2012. A live-action adaptation of the film directed by Bill Condon was released on March 17, 2017.

Alan Menken, composer

Alan Irwin Menken (born July 22, 1949) is an American composer, songwriter, music conductor, music director and record producer. Menken is best known for his scores and songs for films produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios. His scores and songs for The Little Mermaid (1989), Beauty and the Beast (1991), Aladdin (1992), and Pocahontas (1995) have each won him two Academy Awards. He also composed the scores and songs for Little Shop of Horrors (1986), Newsies (1992), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1996), Hercules (1997), Home on the Range (2004), Enchanted (2007), Tangled (2010), among others. His accolades include eight Academy Awards, a Tony Award, eleven Grammy Awards, seven Golden Globe Awards, and a Daytime Emmy Award.

He is also known for his work in musical theater for Broadway and elsewhere. Some of these are based on his Disney films, but other stage hits include Little Shop of Horrors (1982), A Christmas Carol (1994), and Sister Act (2009).

Menken has collaborated with such lyricists as Lynn Ahrens, Howard Ashman, Jack Feldman, Tim Rice, Glenn Slater, Stephen Schwartz, and David Zippel. With eight Academy Award wins, Menken is the second most prolific Oscar winner in the music categories after Alfred Newman, who has 9 Oscars. He has also won 11 Grammy Awards, a Tony Award, and a Daytime Emmy Award among many other honors. Menken is one of sixteen people to have won an Oscar, an Emmy, a Grammy, and a Tony.

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Moon River (Henry Mancini) Piano solo

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Moon River (Henry Mancini) Piano solo with sheet music

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The Piano – Big my Secret (Michael Nyman) with sheet music

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Comptine D’Un Autre Été L’Aprés Midi – Yann Tiersen (piano)

Comptine D’Un Autre Été L’Aprés Midi – Yann Tiersen avec partition (piano sheet music)

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Comptine d’un autre été : L’Après-midi

est une célèbre composition de musique classiquemusique de film pour piano solo, de l’auteur-compositeur-interprète Yann Tiersen. Musique du film Le Fabuleux Destin d’Amélie Poulain, de Jean-Pierre Jeunet en 2001, elle fait partie de l’album Le Fabuleux Destin d’Amélie Poulain (bande originale), César de la meilleure musique originale 2002, vendu avec succès à plus d’un million d’exemplaires dans le monde.

Lui, c’est Yann Tiersen,

ce qu’il aime dans la vie, c’est composer et jouer de la musique avec ses piano, violon, guitare, et accordéon. Amélie Poulain va lui changer sa vie. Il compose, et joue cette oeuvre pour elle sous forme de comptinechanson enfantine à la fois nostalgique, mélancolique, et joyeuse, en souvenir d’un après-midi d’un été passé

Avec plus de 32 millions d’entrées, l’important succès international du film et de sa bande son rendent Yann Tiersen et cette composition célèbres dans le monde entier.

Le Fabuleux Destin d’Amélie Poulain

est un film francoallemand de Jean-Pierre Jeunet sorti en 2001. Il s’agit d’une comédie romantique écrite par Jean-Pierre Jeunet et Guillaume Laurant avec Audrey Tautou dans le rôle-titre.

Le film est une représentation originale et parfois idéalisée de la vie contemporaine à Paris dans le quartier de Montmartre. Il s’agit d’un des plus gros succès commerciaux mondiaux pour un film français. Le film reçoit de très nombreuses récompenses, ainsi que de multiples nominations dont treize aux Césars et cinq aux Oscars.

En 2002, il obtient quatre Césars, dont celui du meilleur film et du meilleur réalisateur.

La musique de film

est la musique utilisée pour un film, voulue par le réalisateur et/ou le producteur. Il peut s’agir de musique pré-existante (compilations, reprises, comme dans 2001, l’Odyssée de l’espace, Trainspotting, ou Pulp Fiction), ou de musique composée spécialement pour le film (comme dans James Bond, Star Wars, Le Seigneur des Anneaux ou encore Harry Potter) : on parle alors de « bande originale » (BO), en anglais « original soundtrack » (OST). Dans ce cas, en France, le compositeur de la bande originale est considéré comme l’un des auteurs du film, au même titre que le ou les scénaristes, et le réalisateur.

Les pouvoirs de la musique

Sa fonction expressive se situe à plusieurs niveaux associés ou non, dramatique, lyrique, esthétique ou symbolique dans un rapport plus ou moins distancié avec ce qui se passe sur l’écran, que ce soit pour caractériser ou illustrer musicalement la scène, lui conférer un pouvoir émotionnel sur le spectateur, voire lui faire jouer le rôle d’un personnage ou un événement symbolique par l’usage d’un leitmotiv.

Les premières partitions écrites spécifiquement pour le cinéma jouent généralement le même rôle que les morceaux du répertoire classique qu’elles remplacent : elles ne font que soutenir le discours cinématographique, souvent avec emphase et redondance. Cette réduction de la musique à une fonction de redoublement amènera le compositeur Igor Stravinsky à la comparer à du « papier peint ».

Petit à petit, la musique brise le cocon de simple accompagnement sonore. Elle dépasse son rôle d’illustration pour apporter une dimension supplémentaire chargée de sens. Au-delà de son apport esthétique, elle devient utile et participe au récit.

La partition de John Williams en est un exemple révélateur ; elle transforme l’attente du spectateur en véritable angoisse dans le film Les Dents de la mer de Steven Spielberg. Le thème musical devient un leitmotiv induisant l’appréhension à lui seul, à plusieurs reprises dans le film.

En 1969, le rock fait son apparition dans la musique de film. La bande originale enchaîne les tubes. La commercialisation des musiques de film devient populaire. Les ventes de bandes originales explosent en proposant une compilation de morceaux connus.

La musique devient indissociable de l’image et nombreux sont les réalisateurs qui lui accordent une place de choix. Les thèmes musicaux de certains films sont devenus de grands succès populaires : la musique des Temps modernes de Charlie Chaplin (1936), le célèbre thème joué à la cithare dans Le Troisième Homme de Carol Reed (composé par Anton Karas), ou encore le sirtaki dans Zorba le Grec de Michael Cacoyannis (1964) composé par Míkis Theodorákis, sans oublier le célébrissime générique d’Il était une fois dans l’Ouest (Ennio Morricone) ou la Marche impériale dans Star Wars (signée de John Williams) de Georges Lucas.

De nombreux cinéastes, et non des moindres, ont considéré que la musique était un langage à part entière dans leurs films et qu’elle contribuait à la narration et à la dramaturgie de la fiction comme le souligne Mario d’Angelo. Yannick Rolandeau prête ainsi à Jean-Luc Godard cette affirmation : « dans audiovisuel, audio vient en premier ». La musique vient en appui de la narration, voire devient un protagoniste à part entière comme l’estime Alexandre Tilsky en se référant au propos de Steven Spielberg sur la musique écrite par John Williams pour Indiana Jones.

Pour Mario d’Angelo, cette vision n’est pas très éloignée de celle d’un Claude Pinoteau, coscénariste et réalisateur de La Boum (1980), qui dit avoir voulu, pour certaines scènes, utiliser la musique plutôt que les dialogues de comédiens dans ce qu’il appelle des « scènes d’éloquence muette » où seules parlent les images et la musique.

Des collaborations durables s’installent entre metteur en scène et compositeur qui partagent le même univers, la même sensibilité : Alfred Hitchcock et Bernard Herrmann, Sergio Leone et Ennio Morricone, Steven Spielberg et John Williams, David Cronenberg et Howard Shore, David Lynch et Angelo Badalamenti, Tim Burton et Danny Elfman, Robert Zemeckis et Alan Silvestri, James Cameron et James Horner ou en France Georges Delerue et François Truffaut, Luc Besson et Éric Serra, Claude Sautet et Philippe Sarde, Jean Girault et Raymond Lefèvre, Yves Robert et Vladimir Cosma.

Dans les années 1990, la musique de film interagit avec le récit et l’on peut ainsi voir les personnages de Magnolia (Paul Thomas Anderson, 1999) se mettre à chanter alors que le film n’est pas une comédie musicale.

En 1995, cherchant à renouer avec plus de simplicité et de sincérité, le vœu de chasteté du Dogme95 interdit d’utiliser toute musique dont l’interprétation ne serait pas représentée à l’image ; elle ne doit pas être rajoutée au montage, elle doit faire partie de la scène. Dans le jargon des sémiologues, une musique ajoutée est qualifiée de « hors-diégèse ». Si les personnages peuvent l’entendre, alors elle est « diégétique ».

Bollywood et ses productions représente un cas particulier proche de la comédie musicale, car outre la bande-son habituelle, il y a systématiquement des scènes de groupes chantées et dansées qui interrompent la trame de l’histoire, apportant fraîcheur et entrain, ou mélancolie et tristesse… Ces passages sont encore plus particuliers car ils sont chantés en playback par des professionnels, alors que les comédiens font semblant de chanter à l’écran.

Rapport de la musique au film

Pour Igor Stravinsky, la musique était du « papier peint » pour le film11,16 ; il signifiait par là que la musique devait supporter l’image et l’histoire, mais ne pas prendre le pas. Dans les films musicaux, au contraire, la musique est souvent un facteur prépondérant puisque c’est elle qui guide le rythme du film : la diction (chant) des acteurs, leurs mouvements, les mouvements de caméra…

Les réalisateurs et les producteurs sont conscients de son importance, notamment de l’émotion qu’elle peut susciter chez le spectateur, des pleurs associés aux violons à l’excitation d’une musique saccadée avec un son saturé, en passant par l’inquiétude, l’angoisse ou l’inconfort d’une musique dissonante.

Dans certains cas, le réalisateur est guidé par une musique, une chanson, un morceau qu’il a en tête, et qui pourra faire partie ou pas de la musique du film. Le réalisateur français Claude Lelouch est coutumier de cette méthode ; il travaille, avant tournage, avec un compositeur, tourne et monte avec, pour témoin, la musique préenregistrée, puis, peut demander au compositeur d’adapter sa musique à la durée du montage final. D’autres réalisateurs tournent et montent leur film avec une musique qu’ils aiment et écoutent avec un baladeur cette musique dite « temporaire » afin de donner du rythme aux images.

Peut-on mesurer la place de la musique dans un film ?

La place de la musique est liée à la conception globale qu’aura le réalisateur (et parfois le producteur) de l’œuvre audiovisuelle ainsi qu’à la qualité de l’activité conjointe réalisateur/compositeur (le compositeur étant choisi pour la musique originale qu’il va composer mais pouvant aussi souvent être le conseiller pour le choix d’autres musiques pour le film et qui sont alors incorporées dans la bande son).

Dans cette perspective, pour Mario d’Angelo, il est certain que le budget consacré à la musique dans une production cinématographique a un impact sur la musique, mais le facteur économique n’explique pas tout. Marc-Olivier Dupin soulignait déjà que : « Les Anglo-saxons ont une exigence plus équilibrée dans les différents champs de la création concourant à la confection du film. Ils accordent un soin particulièrement attentif à la musique et la bande son dans toutes ses composantes. ». Ce soin n’a évidemment pas pour seule explication le budget alloué à la musique.

D’autres raisons expliquent également la place et l’impact de la musique dans une œuvre cinématographique car l’art sonore n’en est qu’une composante, parmi d’autres mais pouvant être utilisée selon les différents résultats possibles qu’escompte le réalisateur.

Ainsi par exemple, dans le film Nue Propriété de Joachim Lafosse (Isabelle Huppert dans le rôle-titre), sur une durée totale d’une heure et vingt-huit minutes, les séquences avec musique (arrangements de la 2e Symphonie de Gustav Mahler par Uri Caine) totalisent seulement deux minutes vingt-trois secondes. Mais le réalisateur, dans un souci de réalisme et pour favoriser l’atmosphère pesante de son drame, ne réserve qu’une seule plage à la musique, à la conclusion du film (il n’y a alors plus de dialogues) juste avant le générique final, lequel redevient silencieux (comme l’est d’ailleurs aussi le générique de début).

Si l’analyse du rôle que joue la musique dans un film ne peut être que qualitative, Mario d’Angelo estime cependant que cette analyse peut être accompagnée d’éléments tangibles ; ils ne permettront que de mieux étayer l’analyse plus globale du contenu audiovisuel en particulier d’une fiction. Dans l’étude qui a été conduite par une équipe d’universitaires de l’OMF et du CEISME, Mario d’Angelo pointe les différentes variantes possibles par rapport à la place de la musique en définissant, outre un critère de durée, un critère de niveau de mixage : « musique forte ou seule » (comme la séquence finale de Nue Propriété) « musique égale à la voix » et « musique en retrait ».

La vérification a été faite sur quarante contenus audiovisuels parmi lesquels six longs métrages. Ceux-ci ont été retenus dans l’échantillon pour refléter la grande diversité des films du point de vue des deux critères tangibles de durée et de niveau de mixage de la musique.

À l’opposé de Nue Propriété, le film Casino Royale, un James Bond réalisé par Martin Campbell (2006) avec une musique originale de David Arnold, se distingue d’abord par la durée de la musique par rapport à la durée totale du film (80 %) mais ici aussi la musique représente un ensemble d’œuvres musicales incorporées dans la bande son, y compris une chanson interprétée par Chris Cornell et composée pour la circonstance par David Arnold. Elle ne fait cependant pas partie en tant que telle de la BO du film mais de l’album du chanteur. En outre, les séquences d’action présentent la particularité d’un mixage de la musique avec les bruitages.

La mesure de la musique ne préjuge en rien de sa qualité. Toutefois, elle est nécessaire pour la gérer les droits de propriété intellectuelle liés aux œuvres musicales (ou leurs extraits) utilisées dans le contenu audiovisuel (musique originale, musique préexistante, c’est-à-dire enregistrée dans un autre contexte ou pour d’autres buts que le film dans lequel elle est incorporée).

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