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Charlie Parker’s compositional study
Charlie Parker (1920–1955) has long been admired as an improviser, but as brilliant as his solo skills were, Parker was also a signiﬁcant jazz composer, an aspect of his musicianship that has not been sufficiently investigated and appreciated. Parker ranks as one of the most important jazz composers of his era by virtue of the quality and continuing popularity of his best-known tunes. Performed widely, they are considered seminal within the jazz repertory. Yet, despite the importance of his contribution, Parker’s approach to composition was casual, and as a result there seem to be no extant working manuscripts that might suggest how Parker composed his pieces. This article explores what we can infer about Parker’s compositional process from those instances where he made revisions to improve or (in one case) create the ﬁnal product. In particular, there is one instance of Parker revising a work already completed (“Ornithology”), one instance of Parker combining two pieces by another composer into one of his own (“My Little Suede Shoes”), and two instances of Parker composing in the studio where we can hear his revisions immediately (“Red Cross” and “Blues (Fast)”).
Ornithology by Charlie Parker
Parker composed at the last minute, usually because he needed material for recording dates. Even more last-minute, there are instances of Parker composing during sessions themselves. For example, bassist Tommy Potter recalls,
On record dates he could compose right on the spot. The A. & R. man would be griping, wanting us to begin. Charlie would say, “It’ll just take a minute,” and he’d write out eight bars, usually just for the trumpet. He could transpose it for his alto without a score. The channel [bridge] of the tune could be ad libbed. The rhythm section was familiar with all the progressions of the tunes which were usually the basis of originals. (Reisner 1962, 183)
The story of the trumpet parts related by Potter is corroborated by the reproduction of two such parts in Parker and Paudras 1981. A photograph on p. 196 shows a trumpet part labeled “Si Si,” which is in fact the tune now called “Blues for Alice,” while on p. 190 we see a photograph as a collage, including a trumpet part whose name is obscured but is the tune now called “Si Si.” The names of the two tunes were probably interchanged when the records were originally produced. Parker and Paudras 1981 also shows us that Parker would indeed write out a part for himself if the tune were complicated enough and composed in advance, for on p. 313 there is a photograph of a manuscript marked “Bird” in the upper left corner.
The manuscript is an alto part to Parker’s “Passport Rhythm,”. Atop the page, in place of a name for the tune, we see what may be “No. 2,” so it may have been the second piece Parker composed for the session.
In the late 1990s, I had the opportunity to photocopy sample Parker autograph manuscripts at the Institute of Jazz Studies and came across two other Parker trumpet parts that were preserved from his recording session of August 8, 1951, the same session that produced “Blues for Alice” and “Si Si.”
These parts contain no crossings-out or rewritten passages, and as such tell us virtually nothing about Parker’s compositional process. They may have been copied from prior manuscripts, which would have allowed us to see Parker revising his work on paper, but none of these seem extant, However, they do provide a melody notated by Parker and examples of his music manuscript.
The Library of Congress (L. C.) has an extensive selection of copyright deposits of Parker compositions. Of the four pieces discussed in this article, “Blues (Fast)” is the only one that lacks an L. C. deposit. However, none of the other three is in Parker’s hand, and in fact the total number of L. C. deposits that were copied by Parker is small: only four out of a total of 90 deposits. An example of an L. C. deposit in Parker’s hand appears, in “Bill’s Bounce.” It may be compared to the previous examples of Parker’s manuscript.
Far better known than his manuscripts are stories of Parker composing quickly. One of the most important Parker studio sessions was his ﬁrst as a leader, which took place November 26, 1945 for Savoy Records. Sadik Hakim (Argonne Thornton), a pianist who probably performed at the session, recalls the haste of Parker’s preparation:
I was living in the same apartment with Charlie Parker at that time (it was November 1945). He got a telegram from Savoy in the morning telling him to get a group together and make a recording date. By 10:30 A.M., he had written the two new blues, “Now’s The Time” and “Billie’s Bounce” (actually it should be Billy’s, it was dedicated to Billy Shaw), and for the other two numbers he planned to use a “head” of his those fellows were playing then which was called “Thriving From a Riﬀ” on the record and later called “Anthropology,” and ﬁnally “KoKo”—which is based on the chords of“Cherokee,” of course. He asked me if I wanted to play on the date. Naturally I was quite thrilled and honored to be working with him. (Hakim 1959, 11)
So early on in Parker’s maturity, as he achieved leader status, we ﬁnd him composing when he needed material. However, toward the end of his life, rapid composition for a speciﬁc purpose was still the norm. Consider drummer Max Roach’s story of how “Chi Chi” was composed in 1953:
And Bird came by, and I said “Damn!” It was like 3 o’clock in the morning. I lived on 30th Street between 3rd and 2nd Avenues and I had a basement apartment. He’d come by anytime and, of course, I let him in, whatever. He saw me laboring over this goddamn music. He said, “What’ cha doin?” I said “I got a session I’m producing; my ﬁrst, myself, tomorrow.” So he says, “OK here’s a gift.” And this is the truth Phil, he sat down at a little kitchen table and a cheap piano—and I wish I had saved that goddam ’script; I never throw anything away—he wrote oﬀ the tune like a letter and I did it the next day [April 10] with Hank Mobley. We recorded it, then Bird recorded it. That’s “Chi Chi.” (Schaap 1988, 30)
Charles Colin, a music publisher in New York City who later published Parker’s work, attended a Parker session supervised by Norman Granz, Parker’s ﬁnal record producer, and provides us with a memorable account of the proceedings. Note in particular Granz’s frustration at Parker showing up without material:
Charlie Parker’s quintet of sidemen patiently awaited instructions from Charlie. Out of the blue, Charlie Parker announced to Norman Granz: “I don’t have any music and I just can’t remember the chord changes of the bridges. We’ll fake the ﬁrst eight and repeat the second eight bars but remembering the bridge is a big problem.”
Frustrated, Norman screamed, “Here we go again! This one tune is gonna take the whole night and way into the next morning! Send a messenger to Colony Music on 48th Street and Broadway for an original copy of the piano sheet music. At least we can lay down the right chord changes.”
This was shockingly exciting for me. I never experienced such a star holding up and delaying an important and expensive recording session. Frustrated, Norman admitted this was nothing new. Evidently this was a common occurrence for him but it was one of the most amazing, heart-beating experiences I’ve ever encountered!
The messenger ﬁnally arrived with the sheet music and Charlie created instantaneous head arrangements! His ﬁrst instructions were to have a four drum beat. Charlie would play the ﬁrst eight bars by himself, then repeat the next eight. Then one of the side men would take the next eight repetitive refrains. With this layout, the quintet ran it down for the ﬁrst cut! (Colin 1994, 5–6)
The session described by Colin was not the one that created “Blues (Fast),” a piece discussed later in this article, since the piece in question was based on a popular standard and not blues changes. However, Colin’s observations corroborate Tommy Potter’s and are undoubtedly pertinent to Parker’s sessions in general; that is, since Granz claimed that Parker’s lack of preparation was the norm, Colin’s account may be taken as typical of Granz’s problems in trying to run a small-group Parker session. Also signiﬁcant is the amount of time taken for Parker to create the tune, for “Blues (Fast)” required twelve takes.
Aside from stories of Parker composing at the last minute, just before or during sessions, we have little to go on regarding how Parker may have thought about creating his compositions. The four pieces discussed in this paper vary considerably in their approach (and my treatment of them will vary accordingly), but I have chosen them because they allow us at least to glimpse some of the ways that Parker thought about creating pieces. Before proceeding to them, however, let me conclude this introduction with general remarks on jazz composition to set the stage for the Parker tunes.
A jazz composition is a distinct musical piece by one or more musicians (its “composers”), created for or during a jazz setting, and intended for future performance or realization or later becoming available for such future performance or realization. This accords with the views suggested by some scholars that a musical composition must be “discrete, reproducible, and attributable.” Jazz compositions can be divided into three groups: large-scale works, smaller-scale works intended for improvisation, and directly improvised works.
Larger-scale jazz compositions vary widely in scope, but always seem to show self-contained sections. “Tiger Rag” (LaRocca, 1917), “Carolina Shout” (Johnson, 1917), or “The Pearls” (Morton, 1923) are examples from the early jazz repertory that are small enough to ﬁt the three-minute format of the 78-rpm record, but are nonetheless multi-sectioned works. More ambitious larger-scale works similarly involve multiple sections, and one or more of these might be extensive in scope. Larger-scale works may also combine elements of the Western concert-music tradition or other musical cultures with features of jazz, and sometimes conductors may be involved in directing the ensembles. Some sections or parts of sections may involve improvisation. Many jazz composers have written large-scale works, for example Duke Ellington, Charles Mingus, and Mary Lou Williams. Charlie Parker was interested in this repertory, and he contributed improvisation to the recording of Chico O’Farrill’s Afro-Cuban Jazz Suite, but he did not write such works.
The second type of jazz composition is the smaller-scale work expressly written for improvisation, and it is for this improvisational repertory that Parker composed his more traditional pieces. Works in this repertory are typically in standard song forms and often appear in fakebooks with melodies, chord symbols, and sometimes lyrics. Jazz instructional programs and method books often provide a sampling of such tunes and direct students to learn them, as they are considered fundamental to performing jazz. This improvisational repertory can itself be divided into two groups: popular songs (many of them “standards” of the American Songbook) and jazz tunes (generally understood as tunes written by jazz musicians, usually for improvisation, and sometimes called “heads”). Popular standards, by their very nature as songs, are more likely to be well known and have lyrics. Long-lived jazz tunes may be called “jazz standards,” a category often used to include those popular standards preferred by jazz musicians. Among the many jazz musicians who have written for this improvisational repertory are some of the best known.
In addition to works written prior to being recorded, Parker also directly improvised pieces that took on a life of their own, issued as recordings with Parker credited as composer. I consider these works to be Parker “compositions,” although they are not compositions as traditionally conceived. The oral component of jazz (and presumably other musical cultures with similar characteristics) urges us to expand the idea of “composition” to account for products of improvisation with sufficient compositional attributes. Take A of Parker’s recording of Gershwin’s “Embraceable You” (Gershwin-Gershwin, 1930) on October 28, 1947, is a well-known example of his studio recordings. Although the Gershwin piece provides the title to the recording, the signiﬁcant item at hand—what we care about vis à vis Parker as a jazz performer—is his interpretation of or improvisation on the pre-existing piece. The recording is a performance not of a Parker composition but rather of a Gershwin song, even though its melody is not expressly stated. The record’s title and excerpts from the original melody, particularly toward the end of the recording, connect the performance to the Gershwin original.
In contrast to Parker’s “Embraceable You,” consider take C of Parker’s recording of “Bird of Paradise” from the same session: the recorded improvisation is based on the form and harmonies of “All the Things You Are” (Kern-Hammerstein, 1939), but not its melody. Mayhew Music Co. and Charlie Parker Music Co. jointly registered a lead sheet of the improvisation with the L. C. (deposit EU659286) on February 23, 1961, as “Bird of Paradise” and credited the piece to Charlie Parker. Therefore, the piece is not only a Parker recording, but also a Parker “composition.”
- “Ornithology” is based on the form and harmony of “How High the Moon” (Hamilton-Lewis, 1940). It remains one of the most signiﬁcant compositions of early bebop. Parker sometimes neglected his best tunes, but not “Ornithology,” which he performed consistently through his career. Perhaps the conjunction of “Bird” and “Ornithology” was too tempting to ignore: how could this not be a trademark tune?
There are two important questions regarding the creation of “Ornithology.” Was it co-composed or was it the work of a single musician? Secondly, who emended the piece between Parker’s studio recording of 1946 and the version he played later in his career? While suggestive possibilities can be provided regarding both issues, conclusions remain elusive.
If “Ornithology” was co-composed, Parker’s partner was Benny Harris (1919–75), a bebop trumpeter and composer much on the scene in the early 1940s. “Ornithology” was among the four bebop tunes by Parker published early on in his career, and its ﬁrst publication by the Atlantic Music Corporation (Parker 1948) credits him and Harris as co-composers. The subsequent reissues of the recording continue to list both composer credits, as does the BMI database (accessed December 5, 2017).
However, it is possible that Parker or Harris worked alone. Among Parker scholars who believe that Harris was the sole composer are Giddins (1987, 64), Feather and Gitler (1999, 296), and Priestley (2005, 34). Others, such as Gioia (2012, 323) or Russell (1973, 8), imply, without insisting on the fact, that it was Parker’s work only. Koch (1999, 344) and Woideck (1996, 123) accept it as co-composed. The L. C. copyright deposit of the tune (EU51930), which might be considered signiﬁcant evidence, lists only Parker as composer, but, as we have seen, deposits of jazz tunes were often informal and not especially accurate. Signiﬁcantly, none of the writers just mentioned offer any proof that either Harris or Parker composed it alone. Those who feel that the work is entirely Harris’s may have drawn their conclusions from the fact that Harris apparently initiated work on the tune, and also that Parker tended to compose solely for recording sessions. Still, neither Harris nor Parker in their lifetimes ever challenged the tune’s status as co-composed, and, as to be discussed next, a consideration of its opening gesture seems to favor co-composition.
The prehistory of “Ornithology” begins with “How High the Moon.” Benny Goodman was the ﬁrst to have a hit record with the latter tune, at a time when guitarist Charlie Christian was a member of the band. Christian, then, may have introduced the tune to the late night jam sessions frequented by the beboppers (Gioia 2012, 150–51). Among them, Dizzy Gillespie began to play it regularly (Gillespie and Fraser 1979, 207; Feather 1977, 9). Gillespie, Parker, and Benny Harris were members of the Earl Hines band in 1943, and so Gillespie may then have introduced the tune to Harris; further, if Parker and Harris did any joint creative work on “Ornithology” at all, it may have occurred during their tenure with Hines. In any event, Harris became a big fan of the original, according to pianist Al Tinney, leader of the house band at Monroe’s Uptown House from 1940 to 43: “There was this guy Benny Harris used to come over to Monroe’s Uptown House, played with a mute, his favorite tune was ‘How High the Moon.’ So every time Benny would walk in, I knew that we would have to play ‘How High the Moon’” (Patrick 1983, 164).
Benny Harris apparently used the start of Parker’s solo on “The Jumping Blues,” which he recorded with the Jay McShann Orchestra in 1942, for the beginning of “Ornithology.” (25) Although this is the standard explanation for the beginning of the tune, the melodic idea is one that appears in the Kansas City scene, appearing at least as far back as Lester Young’s well-known 1936 solo on “Shoe Shine Boy” and on other recordings as well. The top staﬀ, shows the relevant bars from Young’s “Shoe Shine Boy” solo.
We know that Parker memorized Lester Young solos, including the “Shoe Shine Boy” solo. (He reproduced this solo at a jam session recorded in February 1943. Using the same saxophone ﬁngering, Parker plays the tail of what becomes the “Ornithology” idea at the beginning of the “Honey & Body” recording from early 1940. About two and a half years after recording “Honey and Body,” Parker recorded “The Jumpin’ Blues” solo on July 2, 1942, a phrase that combines the beginning of the fragment ﬁrst heard in Young with its tail, ﬁrst heard in “Honey & Body”. Note that the keys are all consistent (concert F), and the “Ornithology” lick is now set in place with the “Jumpin’ Blues” solo. Of course, I am not claiming that the “Ornithology” opening was arrived at methodically through these occurrences, but rather their association is suggestive of the opening taking shape.
About six months after recording “The Jumpin’ Blues,” Parker joined the Earl Hines Orchestra (December 1942). Harris was also a member of the band, and became fascinated with the Parker “Sepian Bounce” solo, as reported in Feather (1977, 26). He probably became aware of the “Jumpin’ Blues” solo at this time as well, as it was recorded at the same session as “Sepian Bounce,” and may have been experimenting with it compositionally. Harris was later performing with Coleman Hawkins, and the latter player may have picked up the “Jumpin’ Blues” lick from him. Later, Hawkins, perhaps continuing to be interested in the lick, used it for the out-chorus of “Hollywood Stampede”, where it is varied accordingly through the circle-of-ﬁfths progression of “Sweet Georgia Brown.”
It was also around this time, the early 1940s, that Harris was frequenting Monroe’s Uptown House and, as we have seen, was fascinated by “How High the Moon.” At some point, Harris may have been inspired to take the “Jumpin’ Blues” lick and apply it to “How High the Moon” changes rather than the “Sweet Georgia Brown” changes heard in “Hollywood Stampede.” However, because “How High the Moon” was being performed in concert G major, Harris needed to change the key, thus transforming the “Jumpin’ Blues” lick in F into the “Ornithology” lick in G.
Parker, meanwhile, continued to play variants of the “Jumpin’ Blues” idea in F, as heard in the “Billie’s Bounce” solo of November 26, 1945. When we ﬁrst hear him playing “Ornithology” at the Finale Club in February–March of 1946, the beginning of the piece is ﬁnally set. Thus, it’s probable that Parker, if he had a hand in composing the “Ornithology” melody at all, had worked on it with Harris before traveling to Los Angeles in December of 1945, and the beginning of the piece may have been determined as early as 1943.
The formula that begins “Ornithology” has remarkable precedents, showing Parker’s connection to both Young and the Kansas City jazz scene of the 1930s as well as its close association with his personal style. Harris probably composed mm. 3–6, but, as pointed out by Sturges 2006, he almost surely wrote mm. 7–8, as these bars appear in a “How High the Moon” solo that Harris recorded in 1945 with Don Byas.
A motive D is bracketed in mm. 4, 6, and 8, consisting of a descending third on the bars’ downbeats, usually with the rhythm of quarter-eighth-eighth. As the tune proceeds from m. 8, motive D continues to appear. The appearance of motive D in Harris’s solo and then in the tune suggests that Harris probably wrote mm. 7–11 as well.
Finally, to complete the tune, the composer(s) needed to work up the remaining ﬁve bars of the form, i.e., the half cadence set up by mm. 12–16 in the ﬁrst half, and (on repeat) the full cadence in mm. 28–32. We hear the ﬁrst attempts at the Finale Club performance of February or March 1946—material that proved unsatisfactory. The cadences to the ﬁrst half may have been partially planned, as Davis and Parker each play the same ascending ﬁgure to D5 before Parker improvises the turnaround. In the second half of the performance of the head, the cadence appears to be improvised before pianist Joe Albany plays repeated Ds to introduce Parker’s solo. (As the recording is a fragment, there is no out-chorus.)
The studio recording of “Ornithology” was made around the same time as the Finale Club performance, on March 28, 1946. The ﬁrst time through the tune, the pianist improvises the turnaround through mm. 15–16. The second time through the tune, in mm. 28–32, the triplet ﬁgure is passed among the players without alteration and with no deﬁnitive cadence.
The triplet-ﬁgures themselves are a mystery. They weren’t present at the Finale Club recording, and so perhaps the musicians worked out the idea at the session itself, with Parker’s direction or at least acquiescence. Koch refers to the triplets as “the difficulty in this tune” (1999, 90), while Henriksson calls them “aesthetically unpleasing” (1998, 136). As Sturges points out (2006, 10–11), the repeating triplet ﬁgure is not idiomatic to bebop style and is eﬀective only if there are several players trading it oﬀ. It’s especially bland with only one player taking the melody.(36)
Nonetheless, the earlier version of the piece with the triplet ﬁgures continues to circulate widely. It appears in the tune’s ﬁrst publication (Parker 1948, 6). Most signiﬁcantly, it continues to appear in The Real Book, Vol. 1 (ca. 1975, 335) and in the popular Charlie Parker Omnibook (Aebersold 1978, 6).(37)
Parker was hospitalized with a mental and physical breakdown after a Dial session on July 29, 1946, and was a patient at Camarillo State Hospital in California until the end of January 1947. As he began performing again, “Ornithology” became part of his standard playlist and can be heard at various Hi-De-Ho Club gigs in Los Angeles in March 1947. In these performances, which were recorded in part by Dean Benedetti, performances of the theme are often cut oﬀ; what fragments of them are heard, however, all feature the triplet version.
Between March 1947 and May 1948, the endings of each half of “Ornithology” were rewritten. These revisions can be ﬁrst heard on a Parker performance made in Washington, D.C. on May 23, 1948. At the presentation of the theme, Parker continues to play the triplets for the ﬁrst half of the tune, while for the second half he plays the revision. On the out-chorus, Parker plays the revised version for each half.
With the changes taken from “How High the Moon,” it’s evident that the harmonic rhythm doubles for the ﬁnal cadence with the tonic arriving at m. 31; this contrasts the one-bar harmonic rhythm that leads to the half cadence. Parker, then, essentially negotiates the chromatically descending chord progression twice as quickly in the second half, and as such the top line F –F–E–E –D descends more precipitately to set up the GM I chord at m. 31.
In the second half, the descent of the piece’s primary line — is clariﬁed by the interweaving of the arpeggiations through the chromatic chord progression. This interweaving places the primary line’s ﬁnal descent squarely on each bar’s downbeat, thus imparting a ﬁnality that obviates a codetta or other extension to conclude the tune (aside, perhaps, from a brief drum ﬁll). The large-scale voice leading that ends the ﬁrst half is less clear, but a Schenkerian – // – – interrupted form may be inferred with the interrupting /V occurring at mm. 15–16.
As mentioned at the beginning of this discussion of “Ornithology,” it is unclear who created the revision that Parker played for the remainder of his career. I would suggest that the precision of the voice leading points to Parker as the reviser of the tune. Increasing that probability considerably is the occurrence of a particular rhythmic ﬁgure in the ﬁrst ending: a four-note pattern bracketed in Example 10a, mm. 13–14, then again in mm. 15–16. This standard Parker formula is found in many of his compositions. The ﬁrst part of the tune, on the other hand, contains none of the Parker syncopations that are characteristic of his pieces. Certainly a key improvement Parker brought to the revision is an outstandingly clear voice leading of the melody for the cadence of each half, giving the tune the snappy ending that has helped deﬁne it ever since.
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