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Johann Sebastian Bach – Eine Chronologie

Johann Sebastian Bach – Eine Chronologie

1685
Johann Sebastian Bach wird am 21. März in Eisenach geboren. Viele Eindrücke und Erlebnisse aus seiner Kindheit in Eisenach begleiteten Bach sein ganzes Leben lang: das als Stadtpfeiferei dienende Elternhaus, die traditionsreiche Lateinschule mit ihrem Schülerchor im alten Dominikanerkloster, die Georgenkirche mit ihrer Orgel, das Rathaus mit den Turmbläsern.

Johann Sebastian Bach noten sheet music

1693–1695
Besuch der Eisenacher Lateinschule

1694
Im Mai stirbt J. S. Bachs Mutter Elisabeth

1695
Tod des Vaters Johann Ambrosius Bach am 20. Februar. Nach dem Tod seiner Eltern kommt J. S. Bach nach Ohrdruf und wohnt im Haus seines 14 Jahre älteren Bruders Johann Christoph, der Organist an der St. Michaeliskirche ist. Gemeinsam mit seinem Bruder Johann Jakob und seinem Vetter Johann Ernst besucht er die Lateinschule, eine damals sehr angesehene Bildungsstätte im Herzogtum Sachsen-Gotha. Er singt im Schülerchor, zu dessen Aufgaben Aufführungen im Ohrdrufer Schloss Ehrenstein und Kurrendesingen gehören. Unter Anleitung Johann Christophs erlernt er das Orgelspielen. Während dieser Zeit wird die Orgel der St. Michaeliskirche gründlich überholt und repariert. Wahrscheinlich eignet sich der junge Johann Sebastian bereits hier die Grundlagen des Orgelbaus an. Seinem älteren Bruder widmet er eine Klavierkomposition (Capriccio E-Dur, 1704). Das Wohnhaus der drei Bach-Brüder fällt 1753 bei einem Großbrand dem Feuer zum Opfer.

1700–1702
J. S. Bach erhält wird Chorknabe an der Michaelisschule in Lüneburg und Schüler Georg Böhms. Besuche bei Johann Adam Reincken in Hamburg. Er setzt sich intensiv mit der norddeutschen Orgeltradition auseinander.
Über die musikalischen Fähigkeiten des jungen Bach konnte lange Zeit nur spekuliert werden – zu gering war die Anzahl aussagekräftiger Quellen über Kindheit und Jugendjahre des Komponisten. 2006 jedoch fand man in der Weimarer Anna-Amalia-Bibliothek Abschriften norddeutscher Orgelwerke, die sich als die frühesten überlieferten Bach-Handschriften überhaupt entpuppen sollten. Die Auswertung des spektakulären Fundes ließ nun einige Aspekte der Bach-Biographik in neuem Licht erscheinen: Anders als oft vermutet, muss Bach bereits als etwa 13-Jähriger über ein außerordentlich hohes musikalisches und spieltechnisches Niveau verfügt haben, denn unter den in Weimar gefundenen Abschriften, die er als Schüler in Lüneburg und Ohrdruf anfertigte, finden sich zwei der anspruchsvollsten Orgelwerke seiner Zeit. Darüber hinaus liefert der Fund wichtige Informationen über ein stets vermutetes, aber nicht nachweisbares persönliches Verhältnis Bachs zum Lüneburger Organisten Georg Böhm (1661–1733). Das von Bach für seine Abschriften verwendete Papier stammt aus Böhms Besitz, vermutlich war der junge Bach während seiner Ausbildung an der Michaelisschule also sogar Schüler oder Geselle des bedeutenden Lüneburger Organisten und Komponisten.

1702
J. S. Bach bewirbt sich erfolgreich für den Organistendienst in Sangerhausen. Das persönliche Eingreifen des Landesherrn führt jedoch zur Bevorzugung eines anderen Kandidaten.

1703
J. S. Bach wird für rund ein halbes Jahr Violinist in der Privatkapelle des Herzogs Johann Ernst III. in Weimar, ist möglicherweise Assistent des Hoforganisten Johann Effler.
Im Juli kommt er nach Arnstadt, um in der Neuen Kirche (heute Bachkirche) die neue Orgel von Johann Friedrich Wender zu prüfen. Später erhält er eine Anstellung als Organist an der Neuen Kirche.
Zwischen 1620 und 1792 leben und wirken in Arnstadt viele Angehörige der Musikerfamilie Bach. Insgesamt 17 Familienmitglieder wurden hier geboren, acht getraut und 25 begraben.

1705/1706
Mehrmonatiger Aufenthalt bei Dietrich Buxtehude in Lübeck. Bach überzieht für diesen Aufenthalt eigenmächtig seinen Urlaub und handelt sich eine scharfe Rüge durch seinen Dienstherrn ein. Die Reise absolviert er zu Fuß.

Johann Sebastian Bach noten sheet music

1707
Im Juni tritt Bach die Stelle des Organisten der Kirche Divi Blasii in Mühlhausen an. Am 17. Oktober heiratet er in der Kirche zu Dornheim (bei Arnstadt) seine Cousine Maria Barbara.

1708
Im Februar wird die Ratswechselkantate »Gott ist mein König« (BWV 71) feierlich aufgeführt. Es ist eines der wenigen Stücke, die zu Bachs Lebzeiten gedruckt werden. In den Folgejahren erhält Bach weitere Kompositionsaufträge zum Mühlhäuser Ratswechsel, die als Verweis auf fortwährend gute Beziehungen in die Reichsstadt gedeutet werden können.
Die Orgel der Kirche Divi Blasii wird in den 1950er Jahren auf Anregung Albert Schweitzers nach der von Bach 1708 entworfenen Disposition rekonstruiert.
Im Juni wird J. S. Bach als Kammermusikus und Organist an den Hof der Herzöge Wilhelm Ernst und Ernst August von Sachsen-Weimar berufen. Bis 1717 wirkt er hier und komponiert zahlreiche Werke für Orgel und Cembalo sowie mehr als dreißig Kantaten. Seine wichtigste Wirkungsstätte, die Schlosskirche, fällt 1774 einem Brand zum Opfer.

1709
Persönlicher Kontakt zu Georg Philipp Telemann, Austausch von Kompositionen und Notenmaterialien.
Hinweise auf eine persönliche Bekanntschaft zwischen Bach und seinem im nahe gelegenen Eisenach wirkenden Kollegen Telemann finden sich bereits im Briefwechsel zwischen Bachs Sohn Carl Philipp Emanuel und dem Göttinger Gelehrten und ersten Bach-Biographen Johann Nikolaus Forkel. Nach Originaldokumenten, die ein Treffen der beiden Komponisten während Bachs Weimarer Schaffenszeit belegen könnten, wurde jedoch lange Zeit vergeblich gesucht. In den 1980er Jahren schließlich stieß man auf Abschriften eines Telemann-Violinkonzertes, die eindeutig der Feder J. S. Bachs entstammen. Wie eng die Beziehung zwischen Bach und Telemann war, belegt nicht zuletzt die Tatsache, dass der zu dieser Zeit bereits in Frankfurt wirkende Telemann 1714 bei der Taufe von Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach Pate stand.

1710
Am 22. November wird der älteste Sohn, Wilhelm Friedemann, geboren

1713
J. S. Bach reist nach Weißenfels. Hier erklingt seine erste weltliche Kantate »Was mir behagt, ist nur die muntre Jagd« (BWV 208) zum Geburtstag des Fürsten Christian zu Sachsen-Weißenfels. Dieser Aufführung folgen einige Jahre später weitere Gastkonzerte am Weißenfelser Hof, der zu dieser Zeit weit über seine Grenzen hinaus für die hohe Qualität seiner musikalischen Aufführungen geschätzt wird. 1729 schließlich wird Bach vom Weißenfelser Fürsten zum Hochfürstlich Sachsen-Weißenfelsischen Kapellmeister ernannt – ein Amt, das er »von Hause aus«, also ohne seinen Wohnsitz aufgeben zu müssen, ausübt.
Im Dezember absolviert Bach erfolgreich ein Probespiel um die Stelle des Musikdirektors in Halle/Saale. Er lehnt das Amt jedoch ab.

1714
J. S. Bach wird zum Konzertmeister befördert. Damit verbunden ist die Verpflichtung, nun monatlich neue Stücke zu komponieren.
Am 8. März wird Sohn Carl Philipp Emanuel geboren. Einer der Taufpaten ist Georg Philipp Telemann.

1715
Am 11. Mai wird Johann Gottfried Bernhard Bach geboren. Auch er wird später Musiker, es sind jedoch keine Kompositionen überliefert.

1717
Im August unterschreibt Bach seinen Vertrag als Hofkapellmeister des Fürsten Leopold von Anhalt-Köthen – ohne jedoch vorher um seine Entlassung in Weimar gebeten zu haben. Als er dies nachholen möchte, erhält er seine Demission nicht und wird wegen Ungehorsams für einen Monat inhaftiert. Im Dezember wird er aus Haft und Dienstverältnis mit »angezeigter Ungnade« entlassen und tritt die Stelle in Köthen an. Noch im gleichen Monat reist er in seine spätere Wirkungsstätte Leipzig zur Orgelprüfung in der Paulinerkirche.

1720
Als Bach von einer Reise nach Karlsbad zurückkehrt, zu der er den Fürsten begleitet hat, erfährt er vom Tod seiner Frau Maria Barbara, die nach kurzer Krankheit verstorben und bereits begraben ist. Über die genaue Todesursache ist heute nichts mehr bekannt.
Im Herbst reist Bach für ein Probespiel nach Hamburg.

1721
Am 3. Dezember heiratet Bach die Hofsängerin Anna Magdalena Wilcke. Nur wenige Tage später findet auch die Hochzeit des Fürsten Leopold mit Prinzessin Friederica Henrietta von Anhalt-Bernburg statt. Möglicherweise ist sie dafür verantwortlich, dass das Interesse Leopolds an der Musik in dieser Zeit abnimmt. Ab 1722 sieht sich Bach daher nach neuen Stellen um.

1723
Im Februar absolviert Bach die Probe für die Stelle des Thomaskantors in Leipzig. Bereits im Vorjahr war nach dem Tod Johann Kuhnaus Georg Philipp Telemann als dessen Nachfolger ausgewählt worden. Telemann blieb des besseren Verdienstes wegen jedoch in Hamburg. In der zweiten Runde wird dann zunächst Johann Christoph Graupner, zu dieser Zeit Kapellmeister in Darmstadt, ernannt. Da dieser keine Freigabe seines Dienstherrn erhält, wird J. S. Bach mit Wirkung vom 1. Juni neuer Thomaskantor und »director musices« in Leipzig.


Das Verhältnis Bachs zu seinem bisherigen Arbeitgeber Fürst Leopold bleibt unbeschadet. Auch nach seinem Weggang aus Köthen darf Bach den Titel »Kapellmeister« weiter tragen und bekommt jedes Jahr den Auftrag, zum fürstlichen Geburtstag eine Festkantate zu komponieren.
Zu Bachs Amtspflichten als Thomaskantor gehört die wöchentliche Aufführung von Kantaten für den sonn- und festtäglichen Gottesdienst. Etwa 60 Kantaten werden dafür pro Kirchenjahr benötigt; nach Auskunft seines Sohnes Carl Philipp Emanuel soll Bach insgesamt fünf solcher Kantatenjahrgänge komponiert haben, erhalten geblieben sind jedoch nur knapp drei. Bachs erster Leipziger Kantatenjahrgang ist nahezu komplett überliefert, die Verfasser der Kantatentexte sind allerdings weitgehend unbekannt. Bis auf einige Rückgriffe auf ältere Kompositionen aus der Weimarer Zeit handelt es sich bei den Kantaten des ersten Leipziger Jahrgangs um Neukompositionen. Zwar kann Bach sowohl bei der Probenarbeit als auch beim aufwändigen handschriftlichen Kopieren der Stimmen auf die Hilfe älterer Thomaner zurückgreifen; das für die allwöchentliche Kantatenproduktion zu bewältigende Arbeitspensum dürfte aber noch immer immens gewesen sein.

Johann Sebastian Bach noten sheet music

1724
Beginn der Streitigkeiten mit dem Leipziger Universitätsmusikdirektor Johann Gottlieb Görner über die Kompetenzverteilung bei der Musik in der Paulinerkirche.
Am 7. April wird die Johannes-Passion (BWV 245) erstmals aufgeführt.
Es beginnt die 20 Jahre währende fruchtbare Zusammenarbeit mit dem Textdichter Christian Friedrich Henrici alias Picander
Es entsteht der 2. Leipziger Kantatenjahrgang (»Choralkantatenjahrgang«)
Mit dieser Kantatenserie greift Bach eine Technik auf, der sich bereits Johann Schelle, einer seiner Vorgänger im Thomaskantorat, bedient hatte: als Grundlage der Kantate wird ein bekanntes evangelisches Kirchenlied gewählt, das im Eingangschoral kunstvoll verarbeitet und im Ausgangschoral unverändert übernommen wird, in den Zwischenteilen aber entscheidende musikalische und textliche Veränderungen erfährt. Die Inhalte der Mittelstrophen werden in Arien- und Rezitativform umgedichtet und somit die alte Tradition der Choralkantate mit der an der italienischen Oper orientierten modernen Kantatenform verknüpft. Die konsequente Einhaltung dieses Prinzips verbot Bach den Rückgriff auf älteres Material – auch bei den Kantaten des zweiten Leipziger Jahrgangs handelt es sich daher fast ausschließlich um Neukompositionen.

1725–1727
Es ensteht der 3. Kantatenjahrgang

1727
Am 11. April wird die Matthäus-Passion (BWV 244, 1. Fassung) erstmals aufgeführt.

1729
Ab März übernimmt Bach das Schott’sche Collegium Musicum
Zu Beginn des 18. Jahrhunderts etablierte sich parallel zum kirchlichen und höfischen Musikleben in nahezu allen europäischen Musikzentren ein florierender bürgerlicher Konzertbetrieb. Zu den wichtigsten Institutionen der frühen bürgerlichen Musikpflege zählen die Collegia Musica – Ensembles, die sich hauptsächlich aus Laienmusikern zusammensetzten und regelmäßig private und öffentliche Konzerte veranstalteten.
Das von Bachs 1729 übernommene Collegium Musicum hatte zuvor dem scheidenden Neukirchenorganisten Georg Balthasar Schott unterstanden. Es fand seine Heimat im Lokal Gottfried Zimmermanns, dem Betreiber eines der größten und beliebtesten Leipziger Kaffeehäuser. Hier fanden die Proben und wöchentlichen Konzerte statt, in den Sommermonaten gab es Aufführungen unter freiem Himmel. Neben Werken zeitgenössischer Komponisten präsentierte Bach in diesem Rahmen zahlreiche Eigenkompositionen, darunter die Orchestersuiten (BWV 1066–68), die Violin- und die Cembalokonzerte (BWV 1041–1043 und BWV 1052–58). Zu besonderen Anlässen wie Geburts- und Namenstagen wurden außerdem gesondert Konzerte organisiert, für die Bach zahlreiche weltliche Kantaten beisteuerte. Seine berühmte »Kaffee-Kantate« (BWV 211), eine eindeutige Anspielung auf die Residenz des Collegiums, hat Bach für ein solches »extraordinaires« Konzert komponiert.
Von besonderer Bedeutung war die Arbeit mit dem Collegium Musicum für Bachs Klavierkompositionen: seit seinem Umzug nach Köthen 1717 hatte Bach keine offizielle Tätigkeit als Organist mehr verfolgt, und so boten die Konzerte im Zimmermannschen Kaffeehaus eine willkommene Gelegenheit, sich in Leipzig nicht nur als Kantor und Musikdirektor, sondern auch als Tastenvirtuose unter Beweis zu stellen.
Auch in seiner Stellung als Thomaskantor konnte Bach vom Collegium Musicum profitieren, denn hier fand er fähige Aushilfsmusiker für Aufführungen mit größerer Besetzung, die er mit den Thomanern allein nicht hätte bewerkstelligen können.

1730
Bach verfasst die zehnseitige Eingabe »Kurzer, jedoch höchst nötiger Entwurf einer wohlbestallten Kirchenmusik«, der den Rat der Stadt bewegen soll, ihm ausreichende Mittel für Chor und Orchester zur Verfügung zu stellen

1731
Am 23. März wird die Markuspassion (BWV 247) erstmals aufgeführt

1732
Am 21. Juni wird Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach geboren.

1733
Bach überreicht das Kyrie und das Gloria der Messe in h-Moll (BWV 232 I-II) an den neuen Sächsischen Kurfürsten Friedrich August II. in Dresden – verbunden mit der Hoffnung auf den prestigeträchtigen Titel eines sächsischen Hofkomponisten oder Kapellmeisters

1734–1735
Vom 25. Dezember bis 6. Januar werden erstmals die sechs Teile des Weihnachtsoratoriums (BWV 248) aufgeführt

1735
Am 5. September wird Johann Christian Bach geboren.

1736
Es entbrennt ein Streit zwischen Bach und Thomasschulrektor Johann August Ernesti um die Kompetenz zur Ernennung von Chorpräfekten (»Präfektenstreit«).
Im November wird Bach nach wiederholter Anfrage zum Kurfürstlich Sächsischen und Königlich Polnischen Hof-Compositeur ernannt. Dadurch wird auch die eigene Position im Kompetenzstreit mit der Leipziger Obrigkeit gestärkt

1741
Bach reist erstmals nach Berlin. Anlässlich der Hochzeit des Arztes Georg Ernst von Stahl wird dort die Kantate »O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit« (BWV 210) aufgeführt.
Lange war über die Entstehungsgeschichte dieses Werks kaum etwas bekannt, lediglich das Entstehungsdatum konnte grob auf den Zeitraum zwischen 1738 und 1741 eingegrenzt werden. Der Empfänger der Glückwunschkantate wurde im Kreise der Leipziger Gönnerschaft Bachs gesucht, konkrete Hinweise blieben aber aus.

Vor wenigen Jahren trat schließlich eine bis dahin nicht in Betracht gezogene Persönlichkeit als möglicher Empfänger der Kantate aufs musikhistorische Parkett: der Berliner Leibarzt und Hofrat Georg Ernst von Stahl, der bis dahin weniger als Gönner Bachs selbst, sondern vielmehr als Freund und Förderer seiner Söhne Wilhelm Friedemann und Carl Philipp Emanuel gehandelt wurde.

In einem Auktionskatalog, der den Nachlass des preußischen Leibarztes und Musikliebhabers verzeichnet, fand man neben zahlreichen Musikalien auch den wenig konkreten Verweis auf »Eine Cantate von Johann Sebastian Bach«. Neben diesem Eintrag ist, wie bei Auktionen üblich, eine Losnummer vermerkt – die Ziffer 5. Tatsächlich konnte im Jahr 2000 bei der Durchsicht des für diese »Cantate« in Frage kommenden Notenmaterials ein Treffer gelandet werden: Auf dem Originalstimmensatz der Hochzeitskantate »O holder Tag, erwünschte Zeit« findet sich eine kleine, im Nachhinein mit Tusche hinzugefügte Ziffer – die Losnummer 5.
Die biographischen Daten liefern Anhaltspunkte dafür, dass der Berliner Arzt tatsächlich als Empfänger der Komposition in Erwägung zu ziehen ist: Während seiner ersten Berlin-Reise im August 1741 ist Bach zu Gast im Hause Stahls, und nur einen Monat später feiert dieser seine Hochzeit, für die er bei Bach durchaus eine Festkantate in Auftrag gegeben haben könnte. Bekräftigt wird diese Vermutung schließlich durch eine Textstelle in der Kantate selbst: »So wird an manchem Ort / Dein wohlverdientes Lob erschallen. / Dein Ruhm wird wie ein Demantstein, / Ja, wie ein fester Stahl beständig sein, / Bis daß er in der ganzen Welt erklinge.«
Bislang war dieser schiefen Metapher – Stahl ist mitnichten, wie hier die Dichtung zu suggerieren versucht, härter als Diamant – keine Bedeutung beigemessen worden. Vor dem Hintergrund der geschilderten Erkenntnisse erscheint sie nun aber in neuem Licht – als versteckte Anspielung auf den Empfänger der Kantate.

1747
Im Mai besucht J. S. Bach Friedrich II. in Potsdam und Berlin. Es ist zeitlebens der einzige Anlass, zu dem Bach auf dem Titel einer Zeitung erwähnt wird: Ein unbekannter Redakteur der »Berlinischen Nachrichten« berichtet über die abendliche Ankunft Bachs, über die Begrüßung durch den König, das Spiel auf dem »sogenannten Forte und Piano« und schließlich die Aufgabe des Königs, Bach möge ein vorgegebenes Thema aus dem Stehgreif zu einer Fuge improvisieren – eine Sternstunde der Musikgeschichte, die das berühmte »Musikalische Opfer« zur Folge hatte.

1748
Vollendung der h-Moll-Messe (missa tota, BWV 232)

1749
Der Gesundheitszustand Bachs verschlechtert sich, er laboriert an einem schweren Augenleiden und hat auch motorische Störungen im rechten Arm, seiner Schreibhand.

1750
J. S. Bach unterzieht sich einer Augenoperation durch den berühmten, aber schon damals umstrittenen Augenarzt Sir John Taylor, der vom 4. bis zum 7. April 1750 in Leipzig weilt. Komplikationen erfordern eine Nachoperation. Kurzzeitig kann Bach wieder sehen, wenige Tage vor seinem Tod erleidet er jedoch einen Schlaganfall.
Johann Sebastian Bach stirbt am 28. Juli 1750.

Wie der Vater, so die Söhne

Bereits die von Johann Sebastian Bach um 1735 nach älteren Quellen zusammengestellte Genealogie der „musicalisch-Bachischen Familie“ führt 53 Musiker namentlich an. Mittlerweile sind gut 80 Personen erfasst, die vom 16. Jahrhundert bis zum Tode von Bachs Enkel Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst 1845 als Komponisten, Musiker und zum Teil auch als bildende Künstler tätig waren. Von einzelnen Mitgliedern der älteren Bach-Familie haben sich zahlreiche Kompositionen erhalten; weiteres lässt sich anhand von Inventaren und anderen Dokumenten nachweisen – Quellen, die bislang lediglich von Lokalhistorikern punktuell ausgewertet worden sind. Von den Söhnen Johann Sebastian Bachs sind vier als Berufsmusiker tätig gewesen, zwei weitere konnten ihre musikalischen Anlagen nicht voll entwickeln.

Alle seine fünf Söhne, die das Erwachsenenalter erreichen, treten in die musikalischen Fußstapfen ihres Vaters. Vier von ihnen übertreffen teilweise noch zu Bachs Lebzeiten dessen Ruhm und sind bis heute bekannt.

Wilhelm Friedemann Bach (1710-84) ist Organist in Dresden und Halle, Carl Philipp Emanuel (1714-88) wird Hofmusiker am preußischen Königshof Friedrichs II und später Kantor und Musikdirektor am Johanneum in Hamburg.

Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach (1732-95) wird Konzertmeister am Bückeburger Hof und Johann Christian Bach (1735-82) schließlich wirkt als Domorganist in Mailand und als Opernkomponist in London.

Bach-Repertorium

Der Beitrag der thüringisch-sächsischen Musikerfamilie Bach zur europäischen Musikgeschichte ist ohne Parallele. Aufgabe des Projektes »Bach-Repertorium« ist es, die nachweisbaren musikalischen Werke aller Mitglieder der weit verzweigten Musikerfamilie Bach in Form eines »Catalogue raisonné« zu erschließen, die Dokumente zur Lebens- und Wirkungsgeschichte der Familienmitglieder zu erfassen sowie ausgewählte Werke in wissenschaftlichen Ausgaben vorzulegen. Die gesammelten Informationen sollen sowohl in gedruckter Form als auch online zur Verfügung stehen.

»Bach-Repertorium« ist ein Forschungsprojekt der Sächsischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig – angesiedelt im Bach-Archiv Leipzig – und wird aus Mitteln des Packard Humanities Institute (Los Altos, California) gefördert.

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Christine Blanken und Dr. Wolfram Enßlin.

Ist der Geburtstag von Bach am 21. März? 1685

Zu Johann Sebastian Bachs Ehrentag: In manchen und historischen Publikationen – oder auch alternativ – wird als Geburtstag Bachs der 21. März angegeben. Das ist allerdings das Datum des (alten) Julianischen Kalenders, der in Eisenach sogar um 1750 noch Gültigkeit hatte. Nach unserem (Gregorianischen) Kalender war das der 31. März.

Nur so viel vorab zu diesem Thema und auf die Schnelle zur obigen Erklärung noch etwas Background: ob Johann Sebastian Bach nun am 21. März oder am 31. März des Jahres 1685 geboren ist, ist eigentlich … vollkommen wurscht. Aber die Erklärung oben – einem Bach-Freund sei Dank für die kurze Formulierung – wäre schon spannend, wenn wir denn hier von Mitte März lesen, dort von Ende März, wenn es denn um den Geburtstag dieses herausragenden Musikers geht. Aber das führt natürlich in vielen Publikationen viel zu weit. Stellen Sie sich nur eine Einführung vor und dann am dritten Wort ein Sternchen und all diese Hinweise. Nein. Schließlich und endlich hat man sich in der Bach-Wissenschaft – zu der sich “Bach über Bach” ja nicht zählt – geeinigt. Eben auf den 21. März 1685. und da schließen wir uns – weil es eben nicht zu den top wichtigen Geheimnissen und Informationen gehört – einfach an. Und damit sind wir mit Christoph Wolff, herausragendem Bach-Wissenschaftler unseres Zeitalters, dem Bach-Archiv in Leipzig und dem Bachhaus in Eisenach “auf einer Linie”.

Das ist eine antike Postkarte, ganz sicher in vielen 1.000 Stück gedruckt, beschrieben, verschickt, zugestellt, gelesen…

Das ist eine antike Postkarte, ganz sicher in vielen 1.000 Stück gedruckt, beschrieben, verschickt, zugestellt, gelesen...
... der Geburtstag von Johann Sebastian Bach am 21. März, am 31. März, am 21. Mai ... wer interessiert sich denn schon wirklich so sehr dafür?!

… der Geburtstag von Johann Sebastian Bach am 21. März, am 31. März, am 21. Mai … wer interessiert sich denn schon wirklich so sehr dafür?!

Herunterladen Sie die besten klassischen Noten herunter – download the best classical sheet music.

The Best of Bach

Johann Sebastian Bach

1. Brandenburg Concerto No. 1 in F major, BWV 1046 Allegro (00:00​) Adagio (4:43​) Allegro (9:10​) 2. Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 in G major, BWV 1048 Allegro (13:40​) Allegro assai (19:11​) Allegro (24:05​) 3. Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 in G major, BWV 1049 Presto (31:42​) Andante (36:37​) Affettuoso (39:32​) 4. Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 in B flat major, BWV 1051 Allegro (45:02​) 5. Concerto for Violin and Oboe in C minor, BWV 1060 Allegro (50:38​) Largo (54:59​) Allegro (59:32​) 6. Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B Minor, BWV 1067: Menuet (1:02:35​) 7. Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D Major, BWV 1068: Air on the G String (1:05:35​) 8. Cantata BWV 147: Jesu, Joy of Man’s Desiring (1:10:07​) 9. Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, BWV 565 (1:13:32​) 10. Harpsichord Invention No. 1 in C major, BWV 772 (1:22:23​) 11. Harpsichord Invention No 8 in F major, BWV 779 (1:23:43​) 12. Orchestral Suite No. 2 in B Minor, BWV 1067: Badinerie (1:24:42​) 13. Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach: Minuet in G major, BWV Ahn. 114 (1:27:24​) 14. Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach: Musette in D major, BWV Anh.126 (1:28:59​) 15. Violin Partita No. 3 in E Major, BWV 1006: Bourée (1:30:06​) 16. Sonata for Viola da Gamba & Harpsichord, BWV 1028 (1:31:48​) 17. Concerto in D minor, BWV 1059: 2nd Movt. (1:35:44​) 18. Cello Suite No. 4 in E-flat major, BWV 1010: Courante (1:38:54​) 19. Cello Suite No. 6 in D major, BWV 1012: Gavotte (1:42:32​) 20. Cello Suite No. 6 in D major BWV 1012: Prelude (1:46:42​)

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Beethoven Piano Concerto No 5 in Eb, Op 73 (Helmchen) with sheet music

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Beethoven Piano Concerto No 5 in Eb, Op 73 – Martin Helmchen, piano – with sheet music

beethoven sheet music pdf

Martin Helmchen

Martin Helmchen (born 1982) is a German pianist. He has played with international orchestras and has recorded discs of many classical composers.

Life

Helmchen was born in Berlin. He began his piano studies at the age of six, and graduated from the Hanns Eisler Music Conservatory as a student of Galina Iwanzowa, and in 2001 from the Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hannover as a student of Arie Vardi.

Career

He was a featured soloist in the BBC New Generation Artists program from 2005-2007. Helmchen has given concerts with the San Francisco Symphony,the Vienna Philharmonic, the Deutschen Symphonie-Orchester Berlin and the NHK Symphony Orchestra. His specialty is chamber music, where he has performed extensively with Heinrich Schiff and Marie-Elisabeth Hecker. Collaborations with further artists have included Gidon Kremer, Christian Tetzlaff, Sharon Kam, Tabea Zimmermann, Juliane Banse, Julia Fischer, Sabine Meyer and Lars Vogt.

Helmchen’s first orchestral CD was released in 2007 with piano concerti from Mozart, and his first solo CD with works of Schubert was released in 2008. In 2009, two further CDs were released:

He made his American debut in 2011 when he played at Tanglewood with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. The same year he performed with Dohnanyi and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.

Awards

In 2001 he won the Clara Haskil International Piano Competition. In 2003 he won the International Kissinger Klavierolymp Competition, related to the festival Kissinger Sommer.In 2006 he was awarded the Crédit Suisse Award, for his debut with the Vienna Philharmonic, directed by Valery Gergiev, playing Schumann’s Piano Concerto at the Lucerne Festival. In the same year he received the ECHO Klassik Prize as together with cellist Danjulo Ishizaka for their CD with works from Felix Mendelssohn, César Franck, Benjamin Britten (2005, Sony Classical).

Selected discography

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Rediscover Beethoven (17 December 1770 – 26 March 1827)

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Find Beethoven’s sheet music in our Library.

Beethoven’s Life

Ludwig van Beethoven was a complex man consumed by a towering
genius – all the more remarkable for the deafness with which he
struggled. He lived a life driven by an unquenchable need to make
music. His legacy is music that still delights, challenges, and moves us.
Born in Bonn, Germany on December 17, 1770 (or perhaps a day
earlier according to some records), Beethoven had a miserable
childhood. He was one of seven children, only three of whom survived
to adulthood. Although he loved his gentle mother, Maria, he feared
his hard-drinking, demanding father, Johann. His father had no great
talent, but he gave music lessons to the children of the nobility. From
the time Ludwig was a small boy, turning the iron handle of window
shutters to hear the musical noise, the child had been absorbed by
music. His father recognized the boy’s ability and nurtured it, possibly
because he saw it as a source of income.


In 1787, when he was seventeen, Beethoven made his first trip to
Vienna, the city that would become his home. There, he was quickly
immersed in the life of Europe’s cultural capital, even playing the piano
for Mozart. Mozart’s prediction was: “You will make a big noise in the
world.”

beethoven free sheet music & scores pdf

Difficult Times

Beethoven’s stay was cut short by a series of family tragedies. He
returned to Bonn to his dying mother. Shortly after, his infant sister
died. When his father lost his job, Beethoven had to take responsibility
for the family.

After his father’s death in 1792, Beethoven returned to Vienna for
good. The serious boy had grown into a man who was by turns rude
and violent, kind and generous. He helped raise money for the only
surviving child of Johann Sebastian Bach, who was living in poverty,
and he donated new compositions for a benefit concert in aid of
Ursuline nuns.

Despite his temper, Beethoven attracted friends easily. He studied
piano with composer Franz Joseph Haydn. And even though the
student-teacher relationship failed the two remained friends. In
Vienna, Beethoven also met Mozart’s rival, Antonio Salieri – the man
rumored to have poisoned Mozart. Salieri was kind to Beethoven and,
in return, Beethoven dedicated three violin sonatas to him.

Beethoven’s struggle to hear…

At the age of twenty-eight, just before writing his first symphony,
Beethoven began to lose his hearing. He tried every available
treatment and, at first, there were periods when he could hear. But in
the last decade of his life he lost his hearing completely. Nevertheless,
he continued to lead rehearsals and play the piano as late as 1814.
Possibly he “heard” music by feeling its vibrations.

As time passed, Beethoven became more and more absorbed in his
music. He began to ignore his grooming, pouring water over his head
instead of washing in a basin. On one of his beloved country walks, a
local policeman who assumed he was a tramp arrested Beethoven. His
rooms were piled high with manuscripts that nobody was allowed to
touch. He had four pianos without legs so that he could feel their
vibrations. He often worked in his underwear, or even naked, ignoring
the friends that came to visit him if they interrupted his composing.

Watch out for that temper!

The stories about Beethoven’s temper became legend: he threw hot
food at a waiter; he swept candles off a piano during a bad
performance; he may even have hit a choirboy. His intensity spilled
over into his family life. He became embroiled in a bitter custody battle
for a nephew who attempted suicide to escape the family animosity.
Perhaps he was terrified and furious about losing the world of sound.
Perhaps he was completely preoccupied by the need to create. Despite
his behaviour, he was admired and respected for the music that
poured from him. He knew that it moved his listeners to tears, but he
responded, “Composers do not cry. Composers are made of fire.”

What about the women in Beethoven’s life?

With his talent and his larger-than-life personality, Beethoven was
popular among women. Although he never married, he dedicated such
pieces as the Moonlight Sonata and Für Elise to the women in his life.

Beethoven, Thunder and Death

In November 1826 Beethoven returned from his brother’s estate to
Vienna in an open wagon. By the time he got home he was ill with
pneumonia, from which he never fully recovered.

Late in the afternoon of March 26, 1827, the sky became dark.
Suddenly a flash of lightning lighted Beethoven’s room. A great clap of
thunder followed. Beethoven opened his eyes, raised his fist, and fell
back dead. He was fifty-seven years old.

Ludwig van Beethoven’s funeral was the final demonstration of the
esteem in which he was held. On March 29, 1827, twenty thousand
people lined the streets, while soldiers controlled the grieving crowd.
Nine priests blessed the composer’s body.

He was buried in a grave marked by a simple pyramid on which was
written one word: “Beethoven.” Today his remains lie beside those of
the Austrian composer Franz Schubert, in Vienna’s Central Cemetery.
“I shall hear in Heaven” – Beethoven’s last words

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Artists Who Have Also Faced Challenges

We are haunted by the idea of Beethoven, the composer of some of
the most beautiful music the world has known, losing the sense that
must have mattered the most to him – his hearing. He was not the
only artist to have confronted, and risen to, such a challenge.

Francisco José de Goya (1746–1828), one of the great Spanish
masters, became deaf in 1792 as the result of an illness. He continued
to paint, but his work reflected his sadness.

The great French Impressionist painter Claude Monet (1840–1926)
found his eyesight failing him late in his life. He continued to paint,
studying his subjects so closely that the paintings appeared
fragmented like abstract art.

Edgar Degas (1834–1917), another French artist began to lose his
eyesight when he was in his fifties. He began working in sculpture and
in pastels, choosing subjects that did not require careful attention to
detail.

One of the finest artists to come out of Mexico was Frida Kahlo
(1907–1954). She began painting in 1925 while recovering from a
streetcar accident. Many of her paintings reflect the physical pain she
suffered.

The Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890) suffered from
seizures and depression. After quarrelling with fellow artist Paul
Gauguin (1848–1903), he sliced off a piece of his ear lobe. Van Gogh
committed suicide in 1890.

Itzhak Perlman (1945–), the wonderful Israeli violinist, became ill with
polio at the age of four. As a result of the disease, Perlman performs
and conducts from a seated position.

Beethoven’s Turbulent Times

Beethoven lived in a period of great turmoil. The French Revolution,
which began on July 14, 1789, rocked Europe. The ideals of the French
Revolution included equality and free speech for all. Within four years
those fine ideals devolved into the Reign of Terror that overtook
France and affected the rest of Europe. In 1798, Napoleon conquered
Egypt, beginning his rise to power. Against the political upheaval,
every aspect of human life seemed to shift. It was an age of change in
ideas, the arts, science, and the structure of society itself.

An age of the musician: Earlier in the 18th century, the Church
dominated the world of music. As time went on, the nobility began to
enjoy music and even learned to play musical instruments. Composers
and musicians were their servants. With his fiercely independent spirit,
Beethoven challenged this notion. “It is good to move among the
aristocracy,” he said, “but it is first necessary to make them respect.”
When a nobleman talked while he was performing, Beethoven stopped
playing to declare, “For such pigs I do not play!”
Literature and art also flourished during Beethoven’s lifetime. The
first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica appeared in three volumes.

An age of exploration: In 1770 Captain James Cook circumnavigated
the globe, charting the coast of New Zealand and eastern Australia as
well as the Bering Strait. James Bruce traced the Blue Nile to its
confluence with the White Nile in 1771.

An age of invention: John Kay patented the fly shuttle in 1733,
making it possible to weave wide cloth. James Hargreaves invented
the spinning jenny in 1765, which spun many threads at the same
time. James Watt invented the steam engine, patented in 1769, and
Robert Fulton initiated steamship travel. The first railroad in England
began operation early in the eighteenth century.

Beethoven became a friend of Johann Nepomuk Malzel, the “Court
Mechanician.” He invented the musical chronometer, which in time was
refined to the metronome, a device that can be set to a specific pace
to guide the musician. Beethoven loved the chronometer and even
composed a little canon to the words “Ta ta ta (suggesting the beat of
the chronometer) lieber lieber Malzel.”

An age of science and mathematics: Joseph-Louis Lagrange
formulated the metric system and explained the satellites of Jupiter
and the phases of the moon. Benjamin Franklin conducted his
experiments with electricity. Joseph Priestley discovered oxygen.
Edward Jenner developed the smallpox vaccine. Musician and
astronomer William Herschel discovered Uranus.

An age of new pastimes: Coffee drinking – which Beethoven loved –
became a part of social life. Gambling, lotteries, card-playing, chess,
checkers, dominoes, and billiards all entertained people.

Human Rights and the Arts

Throughout history, artists have used their talents to comment on
social issues. Beethoven – who lived through the French Revolution
and the Napoleonic Wars, a time of immense social and political
change in Europe and the world – responded through his music. His
only opera, Fidelio, is set in Spain and is based on the story of a
nobleman who is unjustly imprisoned for threatening to reveal the
crimes of a politician.

Beethoven’s third symphony, the Eroica, was originally dedicated to
Napoleon Bonaparte. The finale of his magnificent Ninth Symphony is
based on a poem written by the German poet Friedrich von Schiller,
with words and music that yearn for peace, joy, and the brotherhood
of man.

Like Beethoven, we have lived through enormous social and political
upheaval: world conflicts, the rise and collapse of nations, and
devastating political oppression around the world. We have also seen
hopeful changes, such as the creation of the United Nations as the
principal international organization committed to building peace and
global security.

In Beethoven’s time, as in ours, the arts have been a voice to rail
against political oppression and to make us aware of the plight of
those in the greatest need.

All the world over, ordinary men, women, and children have been
moved to action through music. “We Shall Overcome” and “Nkosi
sikelel’ iAfrika” (God Bless Africa) are two songs that carried a
tremendous amount of influence for Blacks in the US and in South
Africa in their struggle against racism, inequality and injustice in the
last half of the 20th century. And Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony rang
out at the Tiananmen Square protest in 1989 and at the collapse of
the Berlin Wall in 1990.

Beethoven’s Famous Peers

Musicians
Beethoven was not the only composer writing music in this period.
Beethoven influenced Richard Wagner’s (-1813–1883) early
instrumental works. Franz Liszt (1811–1886) “invented” the solo piano
recital. Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901) composed great operas. Frédéric
Chopin (1810–1849) and Robert Schumann (1810–1856) also
belonged to this era.

Poets

British poet William Wordsworth (1770-1850), along with Samuel
Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), began the English Romantic Movement
in literature. Like Beethoven in music and Turner in painting,
Wordsworth used nature as a theme in much of his writing. Here is an
example of one of his best known poems:
I Wandered Lonely as A Cloud
by William Wordsworth
I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o’er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay;
Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.
The waves beside them danced; but they
Outdid the sparkling waves in glee;
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company;
I gazed – and gazed – but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:
For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood,
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils.
1804

Artists

The shift from the Classic to the Romantic tradition was also reflected
in the work of painters and sculptors such as the Spanish master
Francisco José de Goya and Swiss-born Angelica Kauffmann, who
produced more than five hundred paintings in her lifetime.
The painter who most closely paralleled Beethoven’s move to
Romanticism was Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (1796–1875). Early in
his career he painted structured landscapes, but as he matured in
works like Ville d’Avray and Memory of Mortefontaine, he showed a
more imaginative style, creating a filmy aura.

Beethoven the Musician

Beethoven’s initial purpose in coming to Vienna was to study with
Haydn and to learn from the great master the style of Viennese
classicism – a structured worldview where the form of things was more
important than their content. Poetry, literature, painting and music of
this Classic period were restrained and rational.

This formal, disciplined study, however, had little appeal to
Beethoven’s unruly, irrepressible, revolutionary spirit. He absorbed
just what suited him, and proceeded on his own course. Thus, we
find, even in his first published compositions, a bold new voice in
music. Formally, these early works still hark back to traditional
classical forms. But the emotional intensity, rough humor, burning
energy and bold modulations reveal a creator who has struck out on a
new path.

By the 1800s, Classicism was giving way to Romanticism and this shift
was evident in Beethoven’s music.

Beethoven and Romanticism

Romanticism valued imagination and emotion over intellect and
reason. It was based on a belief that people are naturally good, that
physical passion is splendid, and that political authority and rigid
conventions should be overthrown.

Beethoven’s Romanticism transformed every kind of music he
composed. One of his most popular compositions is the Moonlight
Sonata, the second of two sonatas making up Opus 27. It became
known as the Moonlight Sonata well after Beethoven’s death, when
poet Ludwig Rellstab said that it reminded him of moonlight rippling on
the waves of Lake Lucerne in Switzerland. Like all Romantic art, it
appeals to the senses more than the mind.

Beethoven’s Romance no.1 for Violin in G, Opus 40 and his Romance
no. 2 for Violin in F, Opus 50, written between 1798 and 1802, were
called romances for their light, sweet tone, almost like a song. This is
typical of the Romantic period in music: many pieces lend themselves
to being sung as well as played.

Beethoven’s movement away from Classicism and toward Romanticism
is clearest in his symphonies. Before Beethoven, symphonies,
originating in courtly dances like the minuet, had conformed to the
ideals of Classicism with rigid structure and rational form. Beethoven’s
Romantic symphonies broke out of those confines and became large,
sometimes epic structures that told a story and plumbed emotional
depths.

Beethoven the Artist

Beethoven’s first public appearance as a piano virtuoso took place
when he was twenty-five years old. He was to play his Second Piano
Concerto, but two days before the performance it was still not finished
and Beethoven was suffering from an upset stomach. He continued to
write while a friend fed him remedies and, just outside his chamber,
copyists sat waiting for the music as the composer finished writing
each sheet.


His career would be full of such last-minute scrambles. On the morning
of the concert to present an oratorio, Christ on the Mount of Olives, a
friend found Beethoven sitting in bed, composing the part for the
trombones. The piece had its first rehearsal at 8:00 a.m., with the
trombone players reading from the original sheets of music.


Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony

By the time the Ninth Symphony premiered in Vienna in 1824,
Beethoven was almost completely deaf. Nevertheless, he insisted on
conducting the orchestra himself. He continued conducting even when
the piece had ended because he could not hear that the orchestra had
stopped playing. One of the sopranos tugged at his sleeve so that he
would turn around to face the audience – an audience wild with
applause.

Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony continues to move the hearts of people
everywhere. It was played during the Beijing student protests in China
in 1989 and at the dismantling of Germany’s Berlin Wall in 1990. It
has become a symbol of unity, of love, and of the overwhelming power
of music to change those who hear it forever.

Ode to Joy from Symphony No.9 in D minor, Opus 125

Praise and joy, immortal gladness
Gift to all eternally.
We give thanks for joy unbounding,
Celebrate life’s harmony.
Refrain (2x)
Music’s magic boldly sounding,
Bring together friend and foe.
All unite as sisters, brothers.
Sing with joy in lustrous glow.

What to Listen for

The “three periods”

The historian William Drabkin notes that as early as 1818 a writer had proposed a three-period division of Beethoven’s works and that such a division (albeit often adopting different dates or works to denote changes in period) eventually became a convention adopted by all of Beethoven’s biographers, starting with Schindler, F.-J. Fétis and Wilhelm von Lenz. Later writers sought to identify sub-periods within this generally accepted structure. Its drawbacks include that it generally omits a fourth period, that is, the early years in Bonn, whose works are less often considered; and that it ignores the differential development of Beethoven’s composing styles over the years for different categories of work. The piano sonatas, for example, were written throughout Beethoven’s life in a progression that can be interpreted as continuous development; the symphonies do not all demonstrate linear progress; of all of the types of composition, perhaps the quartets, which seem to group themselves in three periods (Op. 18 in 1801–1802, Opp. 59, 74 and 95 in 1806–1814, and the quartets, today known as ‘late’, from 1824 onwards) fit this categorization most neatly. Drabkin concludes that “now that we have lived with them so long … as long as there are programme notes, essays written to accompany recordings, and all-Beethoven recitals, it is hard to imagine us ever giving up the notion of discrete stylistic periods.”

Bonn 1782–1792

Some forty compositions, including ten very early works written by Beethoven up to 1785, survive from the years that Beethoven lived in Bonn. It has been suggested that Beethoven largely abandoned composition between 1785 and 1790, possibly as a result of negative critical reaction to his first published works. A 1784 review in Johann Nikolaus Forkel‘s influential Musikalischer Almanack compared Beethoven’s efforts to those of rank beginners. The three early piano quartets of 1785 (WoO 36), closely modelled on violin sonatas of Mozart, show his dependency on the music of the period. Beethoven himself was not to give any of the Bonn works an opus number, save for those which he reworked for use later in his career, for example, some of the songs in his Op. 52 collection (1805) and the Wind Octet reworked in Vienna in 1793 to become his String Quintet, Op. 4. Charles Rosen points out that Bonn was something of a backwater compared to Vienna; Beethoven was unlikely to be acquainted with the mature works of Haydn or Mozart, and Rosen opines that his early style was closer to that of Hummel or Muzio Clementi. Kernan suggests that at this stage Beethoven was not especially notable for his works in sonata style, but more for his vocal music; his move to Vienna in 1792 set him on the path to develop the music in the genres he became known for.

The first period

The conventional “first period” begins after Beethoven’s arrival in Vienna in 1792. In the first few years he seems to have composed less than he did at Bonn, and his Piano Trios, op.1 were not published until 1795. From this point onward, he had mastered the ‘Viennese style’ (best known today from Haydn and Mozart) and was making the style his own. His works from 1795 to 1800 are larger in scale than was the norm (writing sonatas in four movements, not three, for instance); typically he uses a scherzo rather than a minuet and trio; and his music often includes dramatic, even sometimes over-the-top, uses of extreme dynamics and tempi and chromatic harmony. It was this that led Haydn to believe the third trio of Op.1 was too difficult for an audience to appreciate.

He also explored new directions and gradually expanded the scope and ambition of his work. Some important pieces from the early period are the first and second symphonies, the set of six string quartets Opus 18, the first two piano concertos, and the first dozen or so piano sonatas, including the famous Pathétique sonata, Op. 13.

The middle period

His middle (heroic) period began shortly after the personal crisis brought on by his recognition of encroaching deafness. It includes large-scale works that express heroism and struggle. Middle-period works include six symphonies (Nos. 3–8), the last two piano concertos, the Triple Concerto and violin concerto, five string quartets (Nos. 7–11), several piano sonatas (including the Waldstein and Appassionata sonatas), the Kreutzer violin sonata and his only opera, Fidelio.

The “middle period” is sometimes associated with a “heroic” manner of composing, but the use of the term “heroic” has become increasingly controversial in Beethoven scholarship. The term is more frequently used as an alternative name for the middle period. The appropriateness of the term “heroic” to describe the whole middle period has been questioned as well: while some works, like the Third and Fifth Symphonies, are easy to describe as “heroic”, many others, like his Symphony No. 6, Pastoral or his Piano Sonata No. 24, are not.

The late period

Beethoven’s grave at Vienna Zentralfriedhof

Beethoven’s late period began in the decade 1810-1819. He began a renewed study of older music, including works by Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, that were then being published in the first attempts at complete editions. Many of Beethoven’s late works include fugal material. The overture The Consecration of the House (1822) was an early work to attempt to incorporate these influences. A new style emerged, now called his “late period”. He returned to the keyboard to compose his first piano sonatas in almost a decade: the works of the late period include the last five piano sonatas and the Diabelli Variations, the last two sonatas for cello and piano, the late string quartets (see below), and two works for very large forces: the Missa Solemnis and the Ninth Symphony. Works from this period are characterised by their intellectual depth, their formal innovations, and their intense, highly personal expression. The String Quartet, Op. 131 has seven linked movements, and the Ninth Symphony adds choral forces to the orchestra in the last movement. Other compositions from this period include the Missa solemnis, the last five string quartets (including the massive Große Fuge) and the last five piano sonatas.

Legacy

The Beethoven Monument in Bonn was unveiled in August 1845, in honour of the 75th anniversary of his birth. It was the first statue of a composer created in Germany, and the music festival that accompanied the unveiling was the impetus for the very hasty construction of the original Beethovenhalle in Bonn (it was designed and built within less than a month, on the urging of Franz Liszt). A statue to Mozart had been unveiled in Salzburg, Austria, in 1842. Vienna did not honour Beethoven with a statue until 1880.

There is a museum, the Beethoven House, the place of his birth, in central Bonn. The same city has hosted a musical festival, the Beethovenfest, since 1845. The festival was initially irregular but has been organised annually since 2007.

The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies serves as a museum, research center, and host of lectures and performances devoted solely to this life and works.

His music features twice on the Voyager Golden Record, a phonograph record containing a broad sample of the images, common sounds, languages, and music of Earth, sent into outer space with the two Voyager probes.

The third largest crater on Mercury is named in his honour, as is the main-belt asteroid 1815 Beethoven.

A 7-foot cast bronze statue of Beethoven by sculptor Arnold Foerster was installed in 1932 in Pershing Square, Los Angeles; it was dedicated to William Andrews Clark Jr., founder of the Los Angeles Philharmonic.

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Keith Jarrett - The Art of Improvisation

Keith Jarrett – The Art of Improvisation Part 1/10

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Keith Jarrett – The Art of Improvisation Part 1/10 remastered (with sheet music)

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This is the first part (if YouTube consents) of the best filmed documentary about the great musician KEITH JARRETT. It will be divided in ten parts of about 10 minutes each one. If you love Music, please donate us to help this site being up and running. Thanks! https://www.paypal.com/donate?token=z…

“In this in-depth portrait of one of the world’s superstars of Jazz, pianist Keith Jarrett talks about the range of his music, the importance of improvisation, the great artists he has worked with, nd about the highs and lows of his life. Further iniaghts are provided by fellow musicians, family members and other musical assocaites.

Incorporating recordings and rare archive footage of concerts dating back to thr 1960s and including such greats as Miles Davis and Charles Lloyd, this first-ever major documetary has been made with the full cooperation of Keith Jarrett himself.” “With, in order of appearance, Keith Jarrett, Manfred Eicher, Gary Peacock, Jack DeJohnette, Steve Cloud, Scott Jarrett, George Avakian, Gary Burton, Toshinari Koinuma, Chick Corea, Charlie Haden, Dewey Redman, Rose Anne Jarrett and Palle Danielsson.”

Directed and narrated by Mike Dibb. Programme consultant; Ian Carr.

Keith Jarrett

American musician and composer

Keith Jarrett, (born May 8, 1945, Allentown, Pennsylvania, U.S.), American jazz pianist, composer, and saxophonist considered to be one of the most original and prolific jazz musicians to emerge during the late 20th century. He was also a noted classical pianist.

A child prodigy, Jarrett began studying the piano at age three and performed his first solo recital at seven. He worked as a professional musician while in elementary school, also learning to play drums, vibraphone, and soprano saxophone. He toured as piano soloist with Fred Waring’s Pennsylvanians while in his teens and played with Art Blakey’s Jazz Messengers beginning in 1965. He joined saxophonist Charles Lloyd’s quartet in 1966 and stayed with Lloyd for three years. Jarrett made his first solo albums about this time, including such well-regarded efforts as Life Between the Exit Signs (1967) and Restoration Ruin (1968), on which he sang and played several instruments.

Jarrett came to prominence in 1969, when he joined Miles Davis for several concerts and albums. Although Jarrett disliked electronic instruments, he was willing to compromise for the chance to work with Davis, whose band also featured other important keyboard players of the jazz fusion movement, such as Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock.

Jarrett led his own group during the 1970s, performing with saxophonist Dewey Redman, bassist Charlie Haden, and drummer Paul Motian; and he toured and recorded with the Norwegian saxophonist Jan Garbarek. During this period he experimented with a vast array of tonal and structural devices that previously had been associated more with world music than jazz. At the same time, he revealed his virtuoso command of the keyboard on several albums of unaccompanied piano improvisations. He also composed pieces for brass, string orchestra, and other non-jazz instrumentations.

By the 1980s Jarrett’s public performance had turned to classical recitals, featuring the works of such various composers as Johann Sebastian Bach, Domenico Scarlatti, Ludwig van Beethoven, George Frideric Handel, and Dmitry Shostakovich. In 1983 he formed a highly acclaimed trio with bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Jack DeJohnette; with them, Jarrett released several outstanding albums, including Whisper Not (2000), Inside Out (2001), The Out-of-Towners (2004), Yesterdays (2009), Somewhere (2013), and After the Fall (2018). His other concert recordings included Rio (2011), Creation (2015), A Multitude of Angels (2016), and J.S. Bach: The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (2019). In 2020 Jarrett revealed that he had suffered two debilitating strokes in 2018. Partially paralyzed, he was largely unable to play the piano.

Jarrett has been the recipient of numerous honours, including the Polar Music Prize in both the classical and contemporary fields (2003).

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Beautiful Music

La Mer Beyond the Sea – Avalon Jazz Band

La Mer Beyond the Sea – Avalon Jazz Band avec partition

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la mer partition sheet music pdf

Beyond the Sea” is a 1945 contemporary pop romantic love song by Jack Lawrence, with music taken from the song “La Mer” by Charles Trenet.

Trenet had composed “La Mer” (which means “the Sea”) with French lyrics. It had some differences to the English-language version that Lawrence later wrote. Trenet’s French version was a homage and ode to the changing moods of the sea, while Lawrence, by just adding one word “Beyond” to the title, gave him the start whereby he made the song into a love song.

Versions

“Beyond the Sea” has been recorded by many artists, but Bobby Darin‘s version released in late 1959 is the best known by many, reaching No. 6 on the Billboard Hot 100, No. 15 on the US R&B Chart, and No. 8 in the UK Singles Chart. in early 1960.

Before Bobby Darin’s, two recordings reached the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100. Benny Goodman‘s version charted in 1948, and was featured in the Cary Grant/Betsy Drake romantic comedy Every Girl Should Be Married. Roger Williams‘ recording reached No. 37 in 1955.

Deana Martin recorded Beyond the Sea in 2013. The song was released on her album, Destination Moon, in 2013 by Big Fish Records.

American R&B singer George Benson recorded an R&B version of the song under the title “Beyond The Sea (La Mer).” It was released on Warner Bros. This version entered the UK Singles Chart on 20 April 1985. It reached a peak position of no. 60 and remained on the chart for three weeks.

The first recording of Beyond the Sea was by Harry James and His Orchestra on December 22, 1947, and the first recording of La Mer was by French jazz musician Roland Gerbeau in December 1945.

Charles Trenet

Louis Charles Augustin Georges Trenet (18 May 1913 – 19 February 2001) was a French singer-songwriter, who composed both the music and the lyrics to nearly a thousand songs. These include “La Mer“, “Boum!” and “Y’a d’la joie”, and supported a career that lasted over sixty years.

Lyrics

Somewhere beyond the sea
Somewhere waitin’ for me
My lover stands on golden sands
And watches the ships that go sailin’

Somewhere beyond the sea
She’s there watchin’ for me
If I could fly like birds on high
Then straight to her arms, I’d go sailin’

It’s far beyond a star
It’s near beyond the moon
I know beyond a doubt
My heart will lead me there soon

We’ll meet beyond the shore
We’ll kiss just as before
Happy we’ll be beyond the sea
And never again I’ll go sailin’

I know beyond a doubt, ah!
My heart will lead me there soon

We’ll meet, I know we’ll meet beyond the shore
We’ll kiss just as before
Happy we’ll be beyond the sea
And never again I’ll go sailin’

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Jazz Music

Misty – Jazz Standard song by Erroll Garner

Misty – Jazz Standard song by Erroll Garner with sheet music

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jazz standard free sheet music pdf misty

“Misty”

“Misty” is a jazz standard written in 1954 by pianist Erroll Garner. He composed it as an instrumental on the traditional 32-bar format and recorded it for the album Contrasts (1955). Lyrics were added later by Johnny Burke. It became the signature song of Johnny Mathis, appearing on his 1959 album Heavenly and reaching number 12 on the U.S. Pop Singles chart later that year. The song has been recorded many times, including versions by Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, and, most recently, by alternative rock band Qui.

Lyrics

Look at me
I’m as helpless as a kitten up a tree
And I feel like I’m clingin’ to a cloud
I can’t understand
I get misty, just holding your handWalk my way
And a thousand violins begin to play
Or it might be the sound of your hello
That music I hear
I get misty whenever you’re nearDon’t you know that you’re leading me on?


And it’s just what I want you to do
Can’t you see that I’m hopelessly lost?
That’s why I’m following youOn my own
When I wander through this wonderland alone
Never knowing my right foot from my left
My hat from my glove
I’m too misty, and too much in loveToo misty
And too much
Too much in love

Erroll Garner

Erroll Louis Garner (June 15, 1921 – January 2, 1977) was an American jazz pianist and composer known for his swing playing and ballads. His best-known composition, the ballad “Misty“, has become a jazz standard. Scott Yanow of Allmusic calls him “one of the most distinctive of all pianists” and a “brilliant virtuoso.” He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6363 Hollywood Blvd. His live album, Concert by the Sea, first released in 1955, sold over a million copies by 1958 and Scott Yanow’s opinion is: “this is the album that made such a strong impression that Garner was considered immortal from then on.”

jazz standards sheet music
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Best Classical Music

Piano Solo Compilation (1): Bach, Beethoven, Chopin…

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Piano Solo: Bach, Beethoven, Chopin…Benedetta Iardella, piano solo (with sheet music)

0:00:00 Bach – Partita No. 2, BWV 826 0:13:18 Beethoven – Sonata Op. 2 No. 3 0:37:45 Chopin – Revolutionary Etude Op.10 No. 12 0:40:38 Debussy – Images: Reflets dans l’eau 0:46:16 Rachmaninov – Prelude Op. 32 No. 12 0:49:10 Bach – The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book II: Prelude and Fugue No. 12 0:53:17 Brahms – Intermezzo Op.117 No. 2

piano solo beethoven free sheet music & scores pdf
bach sheet music pdf
chopin sheet music pdf

Classical Composers to know

Most of the best-known composers of classical music worked during the last 600 years in the Western tradition. They differed in style, skill, innovation, and popularity, and nothing incites more heated debate among classical music scholars and fans than determining which of these composers are the most essential. The three composers that consistently appear in the top spots are Beethoven, Bach, and Mozart. Scholars and fans vary on the rest, but those listed below are often regarded as some of the most significant.

  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)The German composer and pianist Ludwig van Beethoven is widely regarded as the greatest composer who ever lived. He expanded the Classical traditions of Joseph Haydn, one of his teachers, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and experimented with personal expression, a characteristic that influenced the Romantic composers who succeeded him. His life and career were marked by progressive deafness, yet the malady did not prevent him from composing some of his most important works during the last 10 years of his life when he was nearly unable to hear. Widening the scope of sonata, symphony, concerto, and quartet, Beethoven’s notable works include Symphony No. 9 in D Minor, Op. 125, Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67, Moonlight Sonata, and Für Elise.

  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–91)An Austrian composer of the Classical period, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart is widely recognized as one of the greatest composers of Western music. He is the only composer to write and excel in all of the musical genres of his time. Rumored to have had the ability to play music at age three and to write music at age five, Mozart began his career as a child prodigy. Notable compositions include The Marriage of Figaro, Elvira Madigan, and Clarinet Quintet in A Major, K 581.

  • Johannes Brahms (1833–97)Johannes Brahms was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period, but he was more a disciple of the Classical tradition. He wrote in many genres, including symphonies, concerti, chamber music, piano works, and choral compositions, many of which reveal the influence of folk music. Some of his best-known works include Symphony No. 3 in F Major, Wiegenlied, Op. 49, No. 4, and Hungarian Dances.

  • Richard Wagner (1813–83)The German composer and theorist Richard Wagner extended the opera tradition and revolutionized Western music. His dramatic compositions are particularly known for the use of leitmotifs, brief musical motifs for a character, place, or event, which he skillfully transformed throughout a piece. Among his major works are the operas The Flying Dutchman, Tannhäuser, Lohengrin, Tristan and Isolde, Parsifal, and the tetralogy The Ring of the Nibelung, which includes The Valkyrie. One of the most controversial figures in classical music, his work transcends his character, which was defined by megalomaniac tendencies and anti-Semitic views.

  • Claude Debussy (1862–1918)The French composer Claude Debussy is often regarded as the father of modern classical music. Debussy developed new and complex harmonies and musical structures that evoke comparisons to the art of his contemporary Impressionist and Symbolist painters and writers. His major works include Clair de lune, La Mer, Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, and the opera Pelléas et Mélisande.

  • Frédéric Chopin (1810–49) Frédéric Chopin was a Polish French composer and pianist of the Romantic period. He was one of few composers to devote himself to a single instrument, and his sensitive approach to the keyboard allowed him to exploit all the resources of the piano, including innovations in fingering and pedaling. He is thus primarily known for writing music for the piano, notably Nocturne, Op. 9 No. 2 in E-flat Major, Nocturne in C-sharp Minor, B. 49, and Heroic Polonaise.

  • Joseph Haydn (1732–1809) The Austrian composer Joseph Haydn was one of the most important figures in the development of the Classical style of music during the 18th century. He helped establish the forms and styles for the string quartet and symphony. Haydn was a prolific composer, and some of his most well-known works are Symphony No. 92 in G Major, Emperor Quartet, and Cello Concerto No. 2 in D Major. His compositions are often characterized as light, witty, and elegant.

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J.S. Bach

J.S. Bach The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080

J.S. Bach The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080 with sheet music

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J.S. Bach The Art of Fugue, BWV 1080 with sheet music free sheet music & scores pdf

Bach’s The Art of Fugue

In the last decade of his life, from 1740 to 1750, Johann Sebastian Bach abandoned the furious pace of composition he had maintained for over 30 years and concentrated his creative energies largely on the composition of just six works.

They were the second volume of The Well-Tempered Clavier, the Goldberg Variations, the Canonic Variations on Vom Himmel Hoch, The Musical Offering, the B Minor Mass and finally, The Art of Fugue.

Johann Sebastian Bach (aged 61) in a portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann, 1746.

In these six works he not only encapsulated all the discoveries and achievements of the previous 40 years, but extended to the outermost reaches of what was possible, the musical language bequeathed to him – which he had already done so much to develop.

Bach was not paid for any of the above works, and indeed barely made any profit by personally financing the publication of four of them.

Thus about 30 copies of the Art of Fugue were bought, and later the copper plates used in the printing process were sold by his sons as scrap, in the hope of recouping some of the costs. So clearly Bach was driven by fierce personal inner necessity to compose these late works.

Bach wrote his „Art of Fugue“ in score and probably regarded it as an art book in contrapuntal guise. This modern piano transcription, based on the Urtext of the New Bach Edition, does full justice to the work’s raison d’être as music for performance. All the known sources have been subjected to a more thoroughgoing musicological analysis than ever before, making this edition supreme in ist field.

He seems to have begun working on The Art of the Fugue in 1742 and, with many interruptions, continued working on it until 1749. It was published posthumously in 1751, and in that first edition, the editors added Bach’s final composition, his short Chorale Prelude Before The Throne I Stand as compensation for the missing ending of the final fugue.

It is easy to forget that the purpose of Bach’s keyboard output was primarily pedagogical. Similarly, his three Passions (one now lost) and around 200 church cantatas were also intended pedagogically, but naturally in a profoundly more meaningful way. With this work, his primary purpose was to demonstrate all the myriad possibilities of fugal composition.

Bach’s death meant that the Art of Fugue was left unfinished. In his father’s manuscriptCarl Philipp Emanuel noted exactly where the last fugue of the Art of Fugue broke off: “While working on this fugue, in which the name BACH appears in the countersubject, the author died.” Our editor Davitt Moroney brings the fugue to a close with 30 supplementary measures.


There has been frequent speculation about what type of scoring would be most appropriate for the piece, particularly since Bach wrote the individual parts in score form and left no information about instrumentation. Certainly, strict fugues can be found in any ensemble scoring; this had been normal for centuries. It is remarkable, though, how the cycle can easily be played on the harpsichord or piano – a strong argument for keyboard performance.

What is a fugue?

The Oxford Dictionary’s definition of a fugue is:

a polyphonic composition in which a short melodic theme, the subject, is introduced by one part or voice, and successively taken up by the others and developed by their interweaving.

Bach brought the fugue to the peak of its development in the hundreds that he composed, and this work represents the apotheosis of the form.

The entire work is based on a theme which consists of the two building blocks of Western tonal music: the three notes of a D minor chord and a scale.

Bach wrote his „Art of Fugue“ in score and probably regarded it as an art book in contrapuntal guise. This modern piano transcription, based on the Urtext of the New Bach Edition, does full justice to the work’s raison d’être as music for performance. All the known sources have been subjected to a more thoroughgoing musicological analysis than ever before, making this edition supreme in ist field.

Nothing could be simpler, and it strains credulity that Bach could erect such a monumental edifice with seemingly unpromising material.

But this simple theme undergoes many permutations throughout the 14 fugues and four canons (in baroque terminology, fugues also) which constitute this work. Thus in the third fugue he turns it upside down, that is, where the original melody descends it now ascends and vice versa.

The final fugue was the last he was ever to write, and also his longest. Although he had often hidden the BACH motif in his music (in German nomenclature it consists of the notes B flat, A, C and B) here – for the first and only time – he overtly introduces it as the third main theme of this massive fugue. It is this fugue which has come down to us incomplete, and the reasons for this are disputed.

We can now be certain that it was not due to Bach’s final illness, which was probably late stage diabetes, although we cannot be certain.

So the question remains open whether after his death, a final page went missing, or whether he had indeed composed it but not yet written it down, or even deliberately left it incomplete.

What we do know is that there are almost certainly 47 bars missing and that here Bach would have combined the main theme of the entire work with the other three themes of this mighty fugue.

The fact that the first complete performance of this work did not occur until 1922 has often been the subject of scandalised comment. But Bach would never have envisaged a public rendition of any of these fugues, much less a performance of the complete work, which in any case was unthinkable in the context of the performance practice of the time.

In the last decade of his life, from 1740 to 1750, Johann Sebastian Bach abandoned the furious pace of composition he had maintained for over 30 years and concentrated his creative energies largely on the composition of just six works.

They were the second volume of The Well-Tempered Clavier, the Goldberg Variations, the Canonic Variations on Vom Himmel Hoch, The Musical Offering, the B Minor Mass and finally, The Art of Fugue.

Johann Sebastian Bach (aged 61) in a portrait by Elias Gottlob Haussmann, 1746.

In these six works he not only encapsulated all the discoveries and achievements of the previous 40 years, but extended to the outermost reaches of what was possible, the musical language bequeathed to him – which he had already done so much to develop.

The Australian composer Felix Werder once drily remarked that we cannot fully understand a work of art unless we know who paid for it. Remarkably, however, Bach was not paid for any of the above works, and indeed barely made any profit by personally financing the publication of four of them.

No consuma noticias, entiéndalas.

Thus about 30 copies of the Art of Fugue were bought, and later the copper plates used in the printing process were sold by his sons as scrap, in the hope of recouping some of the costs. So clearly Bach was driven by fierce personal inner necessity to compose these late works.

He seems to have begun working on The Art of the Fugue in 1742 and, with many interruptions, continued working on it until 1749. It was published posthumously in 1751, and in that first edition, the editors added Bach’s final composition, his short Chorale Prelude Before The Throne I Stand as compensation for the missing ending of the final fugue.

It is easy to forget that the purpose of Bach’s keyboard output was primarily pedagogical. Similarly, his three Passions (one now lost) and around 200 church cantatas were also intended pedagogically, but naturally in a profoundly more meaningful way. With this work, his primary purpose was to demonstrate all the myriad possibilities of fugal composition.

What is a fugue?

The Oxford Dictionary’s definition of a fugue is:

a polyphonic composition in which a short melodic theme, the subject, is introduced by one part or voice, and successively taken up by the others and developed by their interweaving.

Bach brought the fugue to the peak of its development in the hundreds that he composed, and this work represents the apotheosis of the form.

The entire work is based on a theme which consists of the two building blocks of Western tonal music: the three notes of a D minor chord and a scale. 00:00 00:12 Escuchar Excerpt 1 – Contrapunctus 1 Descargar MP3 / 290 KB Source: [J.S.Bach: The Art of Fugue BWV 1080 (Fretwork) I. Contrapunctus 1](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZusfVyit3s)

Nothing could be simpler, and it strains credulity that Bach could erect such a monumental edifice with seemingly unpromising material.

But this simple theme undergoes many permutations throughout the 14 fugues and four canons (in baroque terminology, fugues also) which constitute this work. Thus in the third fugue he turns it upside down, that is, where the original melody descends it now ascends and vice versa. 00:00 00:11 Escuchar Excerpt 2 – Contrapunctus 3 Descargar MP3 / 264 KB Source: [J.S.Bach: The Art of Fugue BWV 1080 (Fretwork) II. Contrapunctus 3](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6uH0CZ77Y7w)

In the fifth fugue, we hear it with some intervals filled in with rather jazzy, dotted rhythms. 00:00 00:10 Escuchar Excerpt 3 – Contrapunctus 5 Descargar MP3 / 231 KB Source: [J.S.Bach: The Art of Fugue BWV 1080 (Fretwork) VI. Contrapunctus 5](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r2Oheu8Gruc)

Later still, we hear it syncopated and in triple time. Starting with the eighth fugue, new themes are introduced, but they are all in fact derived from this original theme. 00:00 00:09 Escuchar Excerpt 4 – Contrapunctus 11 Descargar MP3 / 221 KB Source: [J.S.Bach: The Art of Fugue BWV 1080 (Fretwork) XIV. Contrapunctus 11](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vyiAdK0dD-w) 00:00 00:10 Escuchar Excerpt 5 – Contrapunctus 12 Descargar MP3 / 246 KB Source: [J.S.Bach: The Art of Fugue BWV 1080 (Fretwork) XVI. Contrapunctus 12, Inversus](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEYZJNkYhxM)

The final fugue was the last he was ever to write, and also his longest. Although he had often hidden the BACH motif in his music (in German nomenclature it consists of the notes B flat, A, C and B) here – for the first and only time – he overtly introduces it as the third main theme of this massive fugue. It is this fugue which has come down to us incomplete, and the reasons for this are disputed.

We can now be certain that it was not due to Bach’s final illness, which was probably late stage diabetes, although we cannot be certain.

So the question remains open whether after his death, a final page went missing, or whether he had indeed composed it but not yet written it down, or even deliberately left it incomplete.

What we do know is that there are almost certainly 47 bars missing and that here Bach would have combined the main theme of the entire work with the other three themes of this mighty fugue.

A quandary for performers

Its incomplete state creates a musical, aesthetic, philosophical and even moral quandary for the performer. Most allow the work to trail off at the point where Bach’s manuscript ceases Others conclude with the chorale prelude mentioned above (a chorale prelude being a short contrapuntal elaboration of a traditional hymn tune). This means that after almost 80 minutes of D minor, the work ends with a four-minute chorale prelude in G major.

As one critic remarked, this makes no musical sense whatsoever, but it does make enormous non-musical sense. To the extent that music ultimately deals with existential questions of human existence, to conclude thus is perfectly valid. This writer, however, prefers to play one of the many attempted completions, in this case that by the renowned British harpsichordist Davitt Moroney.

A further contentious issue is for what instruments Bach composed this work. It is written in open score, that is, one stave for each polyphonic voice and, unlike almost every other work by Bach, no instrumentation is specified.

Already in 1751 it was advertised as being arranged in such a way as to be playable by two hands on a keyboard instrument, and this has led nearly all scholars to conclude it was conceived for the harpsichord. However, to assert that it is playable on the harpsichord is very different from saying that it was conceived for that instrument.

The Fugue is playable on the harpsichord but that does not mean it has been conceived for that instrument. shutterstock

The American pianist and writer Charles Rosen has tellingly pointed out that the question of what instrument the work was composed for would not have occurred to a musician of Bach’s time. For the few fortunate purchasers of the original print, it would have been played on whatever instruments they could play and had available at home.

The fact that the first complete performance of this work did not occur until 1922 has often been the subject of scandalised comment. But Bach would never have envisaged a public rendition of any of these fugues, much less a performance of the complete work, which in any case was unthinkable in the context of the performance practice of the time.

As the Hungarian musicologist Paul Henry Lang has said:

each component of this work was to be painstakingly studied and slowly absorbed at home.

To drag it into the glare of the concert hall is akin to displaying mediaeval altar triptychs in modern art museums. In both cases, however, these are among the few avenues we now have to experience these marvels of Western civilisation.

Bach’s Fugues performance

As usual Bach gives us almost no performance indications whatsoever, so it is each performer’s obligation to impart to each component of this work its own distinct character. So although Die Kunst der Fuga is a work of high art of the utmost seriousness, this does not mean that each individual fugue must be played seriously.

Thus after the solemn opening fugue, the second fugue might almost be felt as a parody. The fifth, sixth and seventh fugues, all featuring prominent dotted rhythms, can be felt as, by turns, skittish, pompous and melancholy, while the 12th fugue borders on the tragic.

The Art of Fugue reveals Bach’s preoccupation with counterpoint and the canon. The theme, which is introduced in the first movement, is transformed and elaborated on in the same key in powerful and hypnotic ways until the climactic four-part final movement, which, in Bach’s original, ends abruptly in mid-line. What happened to the remainder of the composition, if indeed it was written down, is unknown. The unfinished nature of this composition continues to spur musicological speculation. Bach’s contemporaries concluded that The Art of Fugue was his final composition, but modern scholars believe that it may be an earlier work (likely completed in 1742) that Bach continued to tinker with and whose editing for publication was simply left unfinished upon his death. Also debated is the question of whether the fugues were really meant to be performed or whether they were more pedagogical in intention. His The Well-Tempered Clavier (1722 and 1742), after all, was intended for harpsichord instruction; The Art of Fugue may have been meant to serve the same purpose. So too, some speculate that Bach may have deliberately left the final movement incomplete, perhaps to invite a performer’s own creativity.

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LIVE Music Concerts Jazz Music

Amazing: Erroll Garner live 63′ & 64′

Erroll Garner live sheet music download from our LIBRARY.

Erroll Garner live 63' & 64' free sheet music pdf

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Erroll Louis Garner (June 15, 1921 – January 2, 1977) was an American jazz pianist and composer known for his swing playing and ballads. His best-known composition, the ballad “Misty”, has become a jazz standard. Scott Yanow of Allmusic calls him “one of the most distinctive of all pianists” and a “brilliant virtuoso.” He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6363 Hollywood Blvd. His live album, Concert by the Sea, first released in 1955, sold over a million copies by 1958 and Scott Yanow’s opinion is: “this is the album that made such a strong impression that Garner was considered immortal from then on.”

Garner was born with his twin brother Ernest in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on June 15, 1921, the youngest of six children in an African-American family. He attended George Westinghouse High School (as did fellow pianists Billy Strayhorn and Ahmad Jamal). Interviews with his family and music teachers (and with other musicians), plus a detailed family tree are given in Erroll Garner: The Most Happy Piano by James M Doran.

Garner began playing piano at the age of three. His elder siblings were taught piano by Miss Bowman. From an early age, Erroll would sit down and play anything she had demonstrated, just like Miss Bowman, his eldest sister Martha said.[ Garner was self-taught and remained an “ear player” all his life, never learning to read music. At age seven, he began appearing on the radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh with a group called the Candy Kids. By age 11, he was playing on the Allegheny riverboats. In 1937 he joined local saxophonist Leroy Brown.

free sheet music & scores pdf Erroll Garner live 63' & 64'

He played locally in the shadow of his older pianist brother Linton Garner.

Garner moved to New York City in 1944. He briefly worked with the bassist Slam Stewart, and though not a bebop musician per se, in 1947 played with Charlie Parker on the “Cool Blues” session. Although his admission to the Pittsburgh music union was initially refused because of his inability to read music, it relented in 1956 and made him an honorary member.[3] Garner is credited with a superb musical memory. After attending a concert by the Russian classical pianist Emil Gilels, Garner returned to his apartment and was able to play a large portion of the performed music by recall.

Garner made many tours both at home and abroad, and regularly recorded. He was, reportedly, The Tonight Show host Johnny Carson’s favorite jazz musician, appearing on Carson’s show many times over the years.

Garner died of cardiac arrest related to emphysema on January 2, 1977. He is buried in Pittsburgh’s Homewood Cemetery

free sheet music & scores pdf Erroll Garner live 63' & 64'

Short in stature (5 feet 2 inches [157 cm]), Garner performed sitting on multiple telephone directories. He was also known for his vocalizations while playing, which can be heard on many of his recordings. He helped to bridge the gap for jazz musicians between nightclubs and the concert hall.

Called “one of the most distinctive of all pianists” by Scott Yanow, Garner showed that a “creative jazz musician can be very popular without watering down his music” or changing his personal style. He has been described as a “brilliant virtuoso who sounded unlike anyone else”, using an “orchestral approach straight from the swing era but … open to the innovations of bop.” His distinctive style could swing like no other, but some of his best recordings are ballads, such as his best-known composition, “Misty”, which rapidly became a jazz standard – and was featured in Clint Eastwood’s film Play Misty for Me (1971).

Garner may have been inspired by the example of Earl Hines, a fellow Pittsburgh resident but 18 years his senior, and there were resemblances in their elastic approach to timing and use of right-hand octaves. Garner’s early recordings also display the influence of the stride piano style of James P. Johnson and Fats Waller. He developed a signature style that involved his right hand playing behind the beat while his left strummed a steady rhythm and punctuation, creating insouciance and tension. The independence of his hands also was evidenced by his masterful use of three-against-four and more complicated cross-rhythms between the hands. Garner would also improvise whimsical introductions—often in stark contrast to the rest of the tune—that left listeners in suspense as to what the piece would be. His melodic improvisations generally stayed close to the theme while employing novel chord voicings.

Pianist Ross Tompkins described Garner’s distinctiveness as due to ‘happiness’.

Garner’s first recordings were made in late 1944 at the apartment of Timme Rosenkrantz; these were subsequently issued as the five-volume Overture to Dawn series on Blue Note Records. His recording career advanced in the late 1940s when several sides such as “Fine and Dandy”, “Skylark” and “Summertime” were cut. His 1955 live album Concert by the Sea was a best-selling jazz album in its day and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Denzil Best on drums. This recording of a performance at the Sunset Center, a former school in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, was made using relatively primitive sound equipment, but for George Avakian the decision to release the recording was easy.

In 1954 Garner composed “Misty”, first recording it in 1955 for the album Contrasts. Lyrics were later added by Johnny Burke. “Misty” rapidly became popular, both as a jazz standard and as the signature song of Johnny Mathis. It was also recorded by Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Sarah Vaughan, Ray Stevens and Aretha Franklin. Clint Eastwood used it as the basis for his thriller Play Misty For Me.

One World Concert was recorded at the 1962 Seattle World Fair (and in 1959 stretching out in the studios) and features Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums. Other works include 1951’s Long Ago and Far Away, 1953’s Erroll Garner at the Piano with Wyatt Ruther and Fats Heard, 1957’s The Most Happy Piano, 1970’s Feeling Is Believing and 1974’s Magician, on which Garner performs a number of classic standards. Often the trio was expanded to add Latin percussion, usually a conga.

In 1964, Garner appeared in the UK on the music series Jazz 625 broadcast on the BBC’s new second channel. The programme was hosted by Steve Race, who introduced Garner’s trio with Eddie Calhoun on bass and Kelly Martin on drums.

Because Garner could not write down his musical ideas, he used to record them on tape, to be later transcribed by others.

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Studio Ghibli Puts Online 400 Images from Eight Classic Films….

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Japan’s Studio Ghibli has long been protective of their intellectual property, with Hayao Miyazaki and his team overseeing how their characters are merchandized, as well as carefully making sure foreign distribution of their films stay faithful to the original. (Miyazaki famously–although apocryphally–sent Miramax’s Harvey Weinstein a katana sword along with a note reading “No Cuts,” because the mogul and all-around bad person was notorious for recutting Asian films for western audiences).

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It’s not that you can’t get tons of Ghibli merchandise—there’s a Totoro beer if you’re interested—it’s that Studio Ghibli likes control. Which makes this huge hi-res image dump from the studio a surprising gift. Earlier this year they released a series of backgrounds to spice up your Zoom meetings. And now they’ve just released 400 images from eight of their films, with plenty more to come.

You can do what you want with these 1920×1080 jpgs, with one caveat from producer Toshi Suzuki: “Please use them freely within the scope of common sense.”

The studio is not releasing all their classics in one go, however. Among the famous Spirited Away and Ponyo, there’s art from films that barely got screenings in the States: Tales from Earthsea (2006), From Up on Poppy Hill (2011), and When Marnie Was There (2014).

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Look, they can’t all be Totoros, and Studio Ghibli has delivered plenty of sweet romantic dramas along with its more fantastic films. If you are curious, Netflix and HBOMax are streaming pretty much the whole catalog.

Which is a surprise, as Miyazaki has long banned Ghibli’s films from streaming. As Suzuki told reporters in a March announcement:

“First of all, Hayao Miyazaki doesn’t know exactly what video streaming services like Netflix are. He doesn’t use personal computers, he doesn’t use smartphones. So when you mention digital distribution to him, he just doesn’t get it.”

He added:

“Hayao Miyazaki is currently making a movie but it’s taking a really long time. When that happens, it’s only natural that it will require a lot of money too. I told him this can cover the production costs for that movie. When I said that, he said “Well, there’s nothing I can do then.”

As long as we enjoy the films “within the scope of common sense,” I hope Miyazaki will have nothing to worry about. Enter the image archive here.

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Download the Studio Ghibli sheet music from our Library.

Read the full article here from the OPEN CULTURE website.