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Beautiful Music

Frank Sinatra – Fly me to the Moon

Lyrics

Fly me to the moon
Let me play among the stars
Let me see what spring is like
On a, Jupiter and Mars
In other words, hold my hand
In other words, baby, kiss meFill my heart with song
And let me sing for ever more
You are all I long for
All I worship and adore
In other words, please be true
In other words, I love youFill my heart with song
Let me sing for ever more
You are all I long for
All I worship and adore
In other words, please be true
In other words, in other words
I love you.

frank sinatra sheet music pdf

Frank Sinatra was one of the most popular entertainers of the 20th century, forging a career as an award-winning singer and film actor.

Who Was Frank Sinatra?

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Singer and actor Frank Sinatra rose to fame singing big band numbers. In the 1940s and 1950s, he had a dazzling array of hit songs and albums and went on to appear in dozens of films, winning a supporting actor Oscar for his role in From Here to Eternity. He left behind a massive catalog of work that includes iconic tunes like “Love and Marriage,” “Strangers in the Night,” “My Way” and “New York, New York.” He died on May 14, 1998, in Los Angeles, California. 

Early Life and Career

Francis Albert “Frank” Sinatra was born on December 12, 1915, in Hoboken, New Jersey. The only child of Sicilian immigrants, a teenaged Sinatra decided to become a singer after watching Bing Crosby perform in the mid-1930s. He’d already been a member of the glee club in his high school and began to sing at local nightclubs. Radio exposure brought him to the attention of bandleader Harry James, with whom Sinatra made his first recordings, including “All or Nothing at All.” In 1940, Tommy Dorsey invited Sinatra to join his band. After two years of chart-topping success with Dorsey, Sinatra decided to strike out on his own.

Solo artist

Between 1943 and 1946, Sinatra’s solo career blossomed as the singer charted a slew of hit singles. The mobs of bobby-soxer fans Sinatra attracted with his dreamy baritone earned him such nicknames as “The Voice” and “The Sultan of Swoon.” 

“It was the war years, and there was a great loneliness,” recalled Sinatra, who was unfit for military service due to a punctured eardrum. “I was the boy in every corner drugstore who’d gone off, drafted to the war. That was all.”

Sinatra made his movie acting debut in 1943 with the films Reveille With Beverley and Higher and Higher. In 1945, he won a special Academy Award for The House I Live In, a 10-minute short made to promote racial and religious tolerance on the home front. Sinatra’s popularity began to slide in the postwar years, however, leading to a loss of his recording and film contracts in the early 1950s. But in 1953, he made a triumphant comeback, winning an Oscar for supporting actor for his portrayal of the Italian American soldier Maggio in the classic From Here to Eternity. Although this was his first non-singing role, Sinatra quickly found a new vocal outlet when he received a recording contract with Capitol Records in the same year. The Sinatra of the 1950s brought forth a more mature sound with jazzier inflections in his voice.

Having regained stardom, Sinatra enjoyed continued success in both movies and music for years to come. He received another Academy Award nomination for his work in The Man with the Golden Arm (1955) and earned critical acclaim for his performance in the original version of The Manchurian Candidate (1962). Meanwhile, he continued to be a formidable chart presence. When his record sales began to dip by the end of the 1950s, Sinatra left Capitol to establish his own record label, Reprise. In association with Warner Bros., which later bought Reprise, Sinatra also set up his own independent film production company, Artanis.

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Rat Pack and No. 1 Tunes

By the mid-1960s, Sinatra was back on top again. He received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award and headlined the 1965 Newport Jazz Festival with Count Basie‘s Orchestra. This period also marked his Las Vegas debut, where he continued on for years as the main attraction at Caesars Palace. As a founding member of the “Rat Pack,” alongside Sammy Davis Jr., Dean Martin, Peter Lawford and Joey Bishop, Sinatra came to epitomize the hard-drinking, womanizing, gambling swinger—an image constantly reinforced by the popular press and Sinatra’s own albums. With his modern edge and timeless class, even radical youth of the day had to pay Sinatra his due. As Jim Morrison of the Doors once said, “No one can touch him.”

The Rat Pack made several films during their heyday: the famed Ocean’s Eleven (1960), Sergeants Three (1962), Four for Texas (1963) and Robin and the Seven Hoods (1964). Back in the world of music, Sinatra had a big hit in 1966 with the Billboard No. 1 track “Strangers in the Night,” which won a Grammy for record of the year. He also recorded the duet “Something Stupid” with his daughter Nancy, who’d previously made waves with the feminist anthem “These Boots Are Made for Walkin’.” The two reached No. 1 for four weeks with “Something Stupid” in spring 1967. By the end of the decade, Sinatra had added another signature song to his repertory—”My Way,” which was adapted from a French tune and featured new lyrics by Paul Anka

After a brief retirement in the early 1970s, Sinatra returned to the music scene with the album Ol’ Blue Eyes Is Back (1973) and also became more politically active. Having first visited the White House in 1944 while campaigning for Franklin D. Roosevelt in his bid for a fourth term in office, Sinatra worked eagerly for John F. Kennedy‘s election in 1960 and later supervised JFK’s inaugural gala in Washington. The relationship between the two soured, however, after the president canceled a weekend visit to Sinatra’s house due to the singer’s connections to Chicago mob boss Sam Giancana. By the 1970s, Sinatra had abandoned his long-held Democratic loyalties and embraced the Republican Party, supporting first Richard Nixon and later close friend Ronald Reagan, who presented Sinatra with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian award, in 1985.

Personal Life

Frank Sinatra married his childhood sweetheart Nancy Barbato in 1939. They had three children together—Nancy (born in 1940), Frank Sinatra Jr. (born in 1944) and Tina (born in 1948)—before their marriage unraveled in the late 1940s.

In 1951, Sinatra married actress Ava Gardner; after they split, Sinatra remarried a third time, to Mia Farrow, in 1966. That union, too, ended in divorce (in 1968), and Sinatra married for a fourth and final time in 1976 to Barbara Blakely Marx, the ex-wife of comedian Zeppo Marx. The two remained together until Sinatra’s death more than 20 years later.

In October 2013, Farrow made headlines after stating in an interview with Vanity Fair that Sinatra could be the father of her 25-year-old son Ronan, who is Farrow’s only official biological child with director Woody Allen. In the interview she also acknowledged Sinatra as the great love of her life, saying, “We never really split up.” In response to the buzz surrounding his mother’s comments, Ronan jokingly tweeted: “Listen, we’re all *possibly* Frank Sinatra’s son.”

Death and Legacy

In 1987, author Kitty Kelley published an unauthorized biography of Sinatra, accusing the singer of relying on mob ties to build his career. Such claims failed to diminish Sinatra’s widespread popularity. In 1993, at the age of 77, he gained legions of new, younger fans with the release of Duets, a collection of 13 Sinatra standards that he rerecorded, featuring the likes of Barbra Streisand, Bono, Tony Bennett and Aretha Franklin. While the album was a major hit, some critics assailed the quality of the project as Sinatra had recorded his vocals well before his collaborators laid down their tracks. 

Sinatra performed in concert for the last time in 1995 at the Palm Desert Marriott Ballroom in California. On May 14, 1998, Frank Sinatra died of a heart attack at Los Angeles’ Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. He was 82 years old and had, at last, faced his final curtain. With a show business career that spanned more than 50 years, Sinatra’s continued mass appeal can best be explained in the man’s own words: “When I sing, I believe. I’m honest.”

In 2010, the well-received biography Frank: The Voice was published by Doubleday and penned by James Kaplan. The writer released a sequel to the volume in 2015—Sinatra: The Chairman, marking the musical icon’s centennial year.

Citation Information
Article Title

Frank Sinatra Biography

Author

Biography.com Editors

Website Name

The Biography.com website

Categories
Musical Analysis Jazz & Blues Music

LEARNING JAZZ IMPROVISATION: EXERCISES ON KEITH JARRETT STYLE

Exercises Developed from Excerpts of a Keith Jarrett Improvisation on All The Things You Are“.

Jazz educators tell students that transcribing solos will help them learn to improvise. It will certainly improve their ears if they are trying to hear the relationships of pitches in a phrase. It will do little to help their ears if they are using software to move the solo note by note and hunt and peck to find that note.

Students often ask what they should do with the solos after transcribing them. Should they learn it note for note matching articulations. I can imagine this would be very helpful. But has playing non-jazz etudes and pieces note for note with correct style helped them with improvisation? Students who focus just on memorizing other’s work, whether it is jazz solos or classical pieces are typically the least prepared to improvise, even though they may have very well developed technique on their instruments.

In order to improvise, one must get into the thinking behind the notes. That is difficult when dealing with memorizing a 128 measure solo. It might be easier when breaking apart shorter excerpts from that solo. One of my primarily classically trained students transcribed the first 36 measures of a Keith Jarrett improvisation over the chord changes to All the Things You Are from YouTube. She can probably sight read it at tempo, but is unable to improvise using the vocabulary.

I suggested taking excerpts; breaking them down, applying them several places in the progression, finding ways to connect these excerpts, and through this process, develop vocabulary. Attention should be paid to appropriate jazz phrasing, articulations, accents and good time feel.

SIMPLE EXCERPTS

Jarrett plays this simple line in the first measure of the form. It clearly lines up with the chord – a 5- 3-1 arpeggio idea with one passing tone, which could be expressed as a 5-3-2-1 pattern.

Apply this fragment to the entire progression (only the first eight measures are shown). As the pattern becomes more familiar, try different rhythmic variations.

Here is a line from m.2. It could be described as a descending arpeggio (7-5-3-1) with one pickup note or leading tone, and one passing tone.

Apply this idea to the entire progression. Some rhythmic variations and displacements can disguise the repeated pattern and make it sound more organic.

Jarrett plays this 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in m.4. In the tune itself, this chord is played as a major 7 chord.

This is a very good exercise for connecting all the chords using a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio. These arpeggios can ascend, as in mm.1-2. Eventually, you will run out of range on your instrument. A solution is to invert the arpeggios as in mm.3, 5, and 7. Repeat the exercise exchanging where you play ascending or inverted arpeggios. Several kinds of rhythmic variations can be applied, including anticipation and delayed resolutions. This exercise follows outline no. 1 (see discussion below).

Apply this arpeggio idea to the progression. Some of these excerpts may be too active to be played in every measure. It is a good idea to practice them in alternating measures. This reinforces a sense of stop and go in your phrasing. The example below plays the line in the odd measures and comes to rest on the 3rd in the even measures. (The connection of this idea resolving to the 3rd of the next chord is outline no. 2, discussed below.)

Now play the 3rd in the odd measures with the line in the even measures.

Jarrett’s line from mm.11-12 can be reduced to a simple line that connects the thirds of each chord. Jarrett also plays a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio that connects the octave leap from G to F. (This is outline no. 1, discussed below.)

Practice the line for alternating measures as shown in the previous exercises. Odd to Even:

Even to Odd:

BASIC OUTLINES

There are three common lines found in music from the Baroque period to the present. They may appear with out embellishment or may be highly figured. (I have written a book that deals exclusively with these structures: Connecting Chords with Linear Harmony, Hal Leonard, Inc.)

Outline No. 1 connects the 3rd of one chord down to the 3rd of the next.

Outline No. 2 begins with an ascending 1-3-5 arpeggio and the 7th resolves to the 3rd of the next chord.

Outline No. 3 begins with a descending 5-3-1 arpeggio and the 7th resolves to the 3rd of the next chord.

The three outlines are shown below for a G7 to C progression. The outlines are used anytime the chords progress down a fifth. Almost the entire progression for this piece is based on chords resolving down a fifth, so these basic outlines will be essential vocabulary.

OutlineNo.1 OutlineNo.2 Outline No.3

Jarrett strings two outlines together in mm.13-15. It is interesting to hear how Jarrett’s rhythmic displacement creates interest, but it is better to begin practicing them as they line up with the chords. When the lines become more familiar, experiment with displacement (both octave and rhythmic) and with various levels of embellishment.

Jarrett Line Basic Outline No. 2 & No. 1

Outline No. 2 applied to the progression using alternating measures.

Even too odd:

Jarrett Outline No. 1 Basic Outline No. 1

Jarrett outline no. 1 idea sequenced through the progression using alternating measures. Odd to Even:

Even to Odd:

Jarrett plays a 3-5-7-9 arpeggio in m.17 followed by outline no. 2 in m.18.

It may be easier to see as shown belowb. In the second setting below, a Bb replaces the An in the descending arpeggio over the D7. The B is more colorful and suggests chromatic voice-leading from the B .

The basic 3-5-7-9 arpeggios are followed by outline no. 3 in the exercise below. A very basic shape is shown on the top line. The bottom line is more embellished and rhythmically interesting and may represent how it might be in an improvised solo. It is important to be able to play the basic shapes before attempting to embellish them.

This exercise is the reverse of the previous one. This one begins with outline no. 3 followed by a 3- 5-7-9 arpeggio. The basic shapes are shown on the top line and more embellished and rhythmically active lines are shown on the bottom.

TRIADS & NEIGHBOR TONE GROUPS

Jarrett plays a simple triad shape in m.23. The basic idea is 3-5-1. Jarrett uses a neighbor tone group before playing the E.

Upper neighbor tones are usually diatonic and lower neighbor tones are chromatic. A simple 3-5-1 arpeggio is sequenced below for the progression.

Jarrett uses another 3-5-1 arpeggio in m.35, but begins with a neighbor tone group around the 3rd.

Apply this idea to the progression. As it becomes more familiar, try other rhythmic placements of the line.

The two neighbor tone groups could be combined in numerous other ways over any basic triad shape. Jarrett used a neighbor tone group around the root in m.23 and around the 3rd in m.35. The exercise below combines those groups and applies them to the progression.

ALTERED DOMINANT LINES

Jarrett plays an interesting embellishbmebnt #of outline no. 1 in mm.24-25. Jarrett’s embellishment calls.

Basic Outline No. 1Shape Jarrett’s Embellishment

This line is also useful resolving to major and may be applied to any of the V7 – I cadences in the progression.

Writers keep journals. Jazz improvisers and composers should keep notebooks of simple and embellished lines as a way of cataloging, fostering and keeping track of creative growth. All of these exercises can be transposed and used in other standard jazz progressions. Many of these exercises can be combined with one another in interesting ways. (For instance, try using one of the triad patterns with neighbor tone groupings to lead to the altered dominant line, then using another variation of the triad pattern when resolving to the I or i chord.)

All of these lines in Jarrett’s improvisation can be found in many other jazz solos, yet we can recognize his solos as uniquely Jarrett. As you internalize these common lines your own unique way of putting them together will emerge. Keep the metronome on and keep practicing!

Find Keith Jarrett sheet music transcriptions in our Library.

improvisation keith jarrett sheet music pdf
JAZZ IMPROVISATION sheet music pdf

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Jazz & Blues Music

McCoy Tyner – “Wave”

Find his sheet music transcriptions in our Library.

Great Jazz pianist McCoy Tyner was born December 11, 1938, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, of parents with roots in North Carolina. Tyner attended Martha Washington Grade School and Sulzberger Jr. High School. Tyner, with the encouragement of his teacher Ms. Addison and his mother, Beatrice Stephenson Tyner, began taking beginning piano lessons from a neighbor, Mr. Habershaw. Later, a Mr. Beroni taught Tyner classical piano.

Although inspired by the music of Art Tatum and Thelonius Monk, it was his neighborhood Philadelphia musicians that pushed Tyner’s musical development. He engaged in neighborhood jam sessions with Lee Morgan, Bobby Timmons and Reggie Workman. Tyner was hand picked by John Coltrane in 1956, while still a student at West Philadelphia High School. Around this same time, Tyner converted to Islam.

After high school, Tyner toured with Bennie Golson and Art Farmer, and can be heard on their hit record, Killer Joe and the album Meet The Jazztet. In 1960, he became a part of John Coltrane’s legendary quartet that included Elvin Jones and Jimmy Garrison.

Later, the group included Eric Dolphy, Pharoah Sanders and others exploring themes of spirituality and African identity. Tyner can be heard on Africa Brass, A Love Supreme, My Favorite Things and Kulu Se’ Mama. He also recorded as a leader on Impulse! Records’ Inception, Night of Ballads, Blues, Live at Newport and several others.

McCoy Tyner -  "Wave" free sheet music & scores pdf

Leaving Coltrane in 1965, Tyner played with a who’s who of jazz greats including: Joe Henderson, Freddie Hubbard, Gary Bartz, Ron Carter, Billy Cobham, Roy Haynes, Stanley Clarke, Sonny Rollins, and many others. He can be heard on a number of albums, including: The Real McCoy, 1967, Asante, 1970, Sahara, 1972, Trident, 1975, The Greeting, 1978, Inner Voices, 1990, and Infinity, 1995, displaying his variety and flexibility as a jazz musician.

An innovator, Tyner performed with strings on 1976’s Fly With The Wind and with a big band on The Turning Point , 1991. With over eighty albums to his credit and five Grammy Awards, Tyner was nominated at the 45th Grammy Awards for Best Instrumental Jazz Recording for McCoy Tyner Plays John Coltrane: Live at the Village Vanguard, and in 2004, Tyner’s Illuminations won a Grammy for Best Jazz Album, Individual or Group. Like John Coltrane, Tyner strives to elevate his listeners’ consciousness.

McCoy Tyner sheet music pdf

Tyner’s energetic style embraces African, Latin, Eastern and bebop rhythms, which he plays in bright clusters. His block chords, pentatonic scales and modal structures have earned him international recognition among the top jazz pianists of all time. Tyner is the recipient of numerous honors including the National Endowment of the Arts’ Jazz Master Award in 2002 and the 2003 Heroes Award from the Philadelphia Chapter of the Recording Academy. In 2005, Tyner received an honorary doctorate of music from Berklee College in Boston, Massachusetts.

sheet music pdf
Find his sheet music transcriptions in our Library.

Tyner passed away on March 6, 2020.

“Wave,” by composer Antonio Carlos Jobim, is one of the all-time great tunes in the Bossa Nova style. Jobim and his musical peers created the Bossa Nova sound in Brazil during the late 1950s-early 1960s, and their influence can still be felt in pop music and jazz today.

The English lyrics were used on the February 11, 1969 recording by Frank Sinatra, on his 1970 album Sinatra & Company. The English lyrics were also used by Johnny Mathis in his 1970 Close to You album. The English lyrics were also used by Sergio Mendes & Brasil ’66 (sung by Lani Hall with Mendes) on their second album, Equinox, in 1967.

The song was voted by the Brazilian edition of Rolling Stone to be the 73rd greatest Brazilian song.

sheet music pdf

According to The Jazz Discography by Tom Lord, the song has been recorded nearly 500 times by jazz artists.

Jazz sheet music download.

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Jazz & Rock Play Along

Improvisation Piano Exercises from Chick Corea

Improvisation Piano Exercises from Chick Corea (with sheet music book download)

“Improvising is living”

Armando AnthonyChickCorea (born June 12, 1941) is an American jazz pianist/electric keyboardist and composer. His compositions “Spain“, “500 Miles High“, “La Fiesta”, “Armando’s Rhumba” and “Windows“, are considered jazz standards. As a member of Miles Davis‘s band in the late 1960s, he participated in the birth of jazz fusion. In the 1970s he formed the fusion band Return to Forever. With Herbie Hancock, McCoy Tyner, Keith Jarrett and Bill Evans, he has been described as one of the major jazz piano voices to emerge in the post-John Coltrane era. Many of his jazz transcriptions can be found in our Library.

Improvisation Piano Exercises from Chick Corea (with sheet music download)

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Beautiful Music Film & TV Music

Perfidia (Bolero) por Alberto Domínguez Borrás (con partitura – sheet music)

Perfidia (Bolero) por Alberto Domínguez Borrás (con partitura – sheet music)

Letra:

Nadie comprende lo que sufro yo
Canto pues ya no puedo sollozar,
Solo temblando de ansiedad estoy
Todos me miran y se van

Mujer,
Si puedes tú con Dios hablar,
Pregúntale si yo alguna vez
Te he dejado de adorar

Y al mar,
Espejo de mi corazón,
Las veces que me ha visto llorar
La perfidia de tu amor

Te he buscado dondequiera que yo voy,
Y no te puedo hallar,
Para qué quiero otros besos
Si tus labios no me quieren ya besar

Y tú,
Quien sabe por donde andarás
Quien sabe que aventuras tendrás
Que lejos estas de mi

Te he buscado dondequiera que yo voy
Y no te puedo hallar,
Para qué quiero otros besos
Si tus labios no me quieren ya besar.

Y tú,
Quien sabe por donde andarás
Quien sabe que aventuras tendrás
Que lejos estas de mi
De mi
De mi

El bolero Perfidia: de las más famosas canciones de Alberto Domínguez Borrás

Junto con Frenesí, Perfidia es una de las obras más conocidas y versionadas de Alberto Domínguez

bolero free sheet music pdf

Muchas de las canciones que formaron parte de la vida de más de una generación; poco a poco están pasando a formar parte de nuestra historia. Una de ellas es Perfidia, un bolero compuesto en 1939.

Esta canción fue muy popular debido a las diversas versiones que se grabaron y difundieron de ella en la década de los 40. Alrededor de 50 artistas grabaron esta canción en diferentes idiomas; por supuesto, con su sello personal. Los Panchos, Luis Miguel, Glenn Miller, Plácido Domingo y Café Tacvba son solo algunos de los músicos que se sumaron a la lista de intérpretes de Perfidia, que a casi 80 años de su composición, se sigue escuchando.

Mujer; si puedes tú con Dios hablar, pregúntale si yo alguna vez te he dejado de adorar

El autor, Alberto Domínguez Borrás, era originario de San Cristóbal de las Casas, Chiapas. Comenzó a componer a los 8 años de edad; y su pieza Frenesí, también alcanzó la fama mundial. Esto sucedió gracias al clarinetista Artie Shaw, y poco antes del éxito de Perfidia. Estos dos hechos, al haber pasado con tan poca diferencia temporal, lo consagraron como uno de los mejores músicos mexicanos de la época.

La intérprete Linda Ronstadt incluyó ambos temas en su álbum Frenesí, de 1992. A pesar del cambio de época, Linda se llevó el Premio Grammy de ese año como Mejor Álbum Tropical Latino.

Alberto Domínguez continuó componiendo hasta la década de los 70. Él falleció en la Ciudad de México el 2 de Septiembre de 1975; pero muchas de sus obras como Dos almas, Humanidad e Hilos de plata se convirtieron en referentes importantes de la música nacional.

En septiembre del 2004, el palacio de Bellas Artes realizó un homenaje a los hermanos Domínguez; pues además de Alberto, Armando y Abel Domínguez también eran músicos. Contándolos a ellos, el matrimonio Domínguez Borrás tuvo dieciocho hijos.

Análisis

El tema se inicia con una variante de la progresión doo wop (I-VI-IV-V) en la que el V es sustituido por un II-V. La segunda frase termina en una semicadencia en el relativo menor (V/VI).

Fue incluida en la banda sonora de la película Casablanca, en una escena en un club nocturno de París en la que Humphrey Bogart e Ingrid Bergman bailan juntos.

English lyrics by Milton Needs:

To you
My heart cries out “Perfidia”
For I find you, the love of my life
In somebody else’s arms

Your eyes are echoing “Perfidia”
Forgetful of the promise of love
You’re sharing another’s charms

With a sad lament my dreams are faded like a broken melody
While the gods of love look down and laugh
At what romantic fools we mortals be

And now, I know* my love was not for you
And so I take it back with a sigh
Perfidious one, Goodbye

With a sad lament my dreams are faded like a broken melody
While the gods of love look down and laugh
At what romantic fools we mortals be

And now, I know* my love was not for you
And so I take it back with a sigh
Perfidious one, Goodbye
Goodbye

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Film & TV Music

As Time Goes By (sheet music)

As Time Goes By – with sheet music

“As Time Goes By” is a song written by Herman Hupfeld in 1931. The sheet music can be found in our Library.

It became famous when it was featured in the 1942 Warner Bros. film Casablanca performed by Dooley Wilson as Sam. The song was voted No. 2 on the AFI’s 100 Years…100 Songs special, commemorating the best songs in film (only surpassed by “Over the Rainbow” by Judy Garland). The song has since become the signature tune of Warner Bros. and used as such in the production logos at the beginning of many Warner Bros. films since 1999, as well as the closing logos to most Warner Bros. Television shows since 2003. It was also the title and theme song of the 1990s British romantic comedy series As Time Goes By.The AFI listed it among its “top 100” movie songs. National Public Radio included it in its “NPR 100”, a 1999 list of the most important American musical works of the 20th century as compiled by NPR’s music editors.

as time goes by sheet music pdf

The song is a popular reflection of nostalgia and often used in films and series reflecting this feeling.The original song in the film as sung and played by “Sam” was recorded in D-flat major, but it has since been played in several keys, commonly C major, but also B-flat major, as in Frank Sinatra’s recording, and other keys including A major and E-flat major, the key in which the song was originally published.

Sheet Music Lyrics:

You must remember this
A kiss is just a kiss
A sigh is just a sigh
The fundamental things apply
As time goes byAnd when two lovers woo
They still say “I love you”
On that you can rely
No matter what the future brings
As time goes by

Moonlight and love songs
Never out of date
Hearts full of passion
Jealousy and hate
Woman needs man, and man must have his mate
That no one can denyIt’s still the same old story
A fight for love and glory
A case of do or die
The world will always welcome lovers
As time goes by

Moonlight and love songs
Never out of…

The song “As Time Goes By” and the film Casablanca are inextricably intertwined; it is nearly impossible to think of one without the other. That wasn’t always so. “As Time Goes By” was written in 1931, eleven years before Casablanca debuted. That year the song appeared in a modestly successful Broadway play, Everybody’s Welcome, and crooner Rudy Vallee’s recording reached fifteenth place on the pop charts. After that, the song was virtually forgotten and its composer, Herman Hupfeld, moved on to other musicals.

Herman Hupfeld (February 1, 1894 – June 8, 1951) was an American songwriter whose most notable composition was “As Time Goes By“. He wrote both the lyrics and music.

As Time Goes By”

“As Time Goes By” is most famous from the film Casablanca (1942). It was originally written for the Broadway show Everybody’s Welcome (1931), which ran for 139 performances. In 1931, the song was a modest hit, with versions issued on Victor, Columbia, Brunswick and the dime store labels.

The song was featured in the unproduced play Everybody Comes To Rick’s, which was the basis for the Casablanca story and script. Against Max Steiner‘s wishes (he wrote the music for the film), it was decided to feature the 1931 song in the 1942 film. It has been well documented[by whom?] that the producers considered dropping the song in post-production, but since Ingrid Bergman had been given the part of Maria in Paramount’s For Whom the Bell Tolls and had cut her hair for the part, it would not have been possible to reshoot any of her scenes with the song being performed, or to have her request that Sam (Dooley Wilson) play a different song.

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Games' music

FINAL FANTASY VII – Main Theme

FINAL FANTASY VII Main Theme with sheet music

Many of today’s musicians are, on some level, self-taught.  Some of us are mostly or entirely self-taught musicians, which has become increasingly possible due to the abundance of free information and increasingly-accessible tools/instruments available today on the internet.  Unfortunately, many self-taught musicians have a shared weakness: music theory.

Before we dive into the music theory deep end, I want to preface the following information with a few thoughts and notes on the context of these lessons and how you can actually benefit from them.  ‘Theory,’ by itself isn’t helpful, but tools and application of knowledge can be indispensable.  I believe that most people fail to learn (or fail to remember) music theory because they try to learn/are taught the theory without relevant context or meaningful application.  If I want to learn to play pop songs on my guitar so I can sing those songs, do I need to learn anything about scales?  No, probably not – and if I try to learn them I’ll either fail out of boredom or I’ll forget what I learn because it isn’t relevant to my goals.  If I want to learn how to write a great melody, on the other hand, musical scales are the building blocks for melody and harmony and this information is extremely valuable to understand.

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I’ll do my best to explain why each lesson may be useful to you, but you don’t have to use every trick on this list.  If there’s a specific effect from the examples below that you enjoy, use that lesson.  Try adding it to your next piece, or try adding it to an old piece to breathe new life into it.  If you like the effect and understand how to replicate it, it becomes part of your compositional “bag of tricks” and can be called upon later.

Enough context – on to the meat and potatoes!  Today, we travel back in time to 1997 (yes, it’s been that long) to dissect the main theme from Final Fantasy VII.  This theme is one of the more recognizable RPG themes ever written, and the motif from the piece is sprinkled throughout the entire Final Fantasy VII soundtrack which provides an excellent cohesion between the various different settings and events of the game.  This piece is jam-packed with little musical tricks, so put on your learnin’ caps and buckle up.  Ready?  All right, everyone – let’s mosey.

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Lesson I: Using Intervals in Melody Writing

Why this lesson is important:

A great melody is priceless, and Final Fantasy VII’s main theme has a simple, beautiful melody.  Writing an effective melody is all about balance, and writing a balanced melody can be very difficult when you’re actively trying to write an interesting melody.  What makes a melody interesting is contrast and balance between the different elements within.  Intervals are one of those critical elements you need to balance, and if you struggle with consistently writing melodies that you don’t hate you may want to take this lesson to heart.

The Lesson:

An interval is the distance between two pitches, but not all intervals are created equal.  If terms like a “major third,” “perfect fourth,” or “perfect fifth” are completely foreign to you, I would pause here and watch this video by Joshua Taipale of Ongaku Concept to get up to speed in less than 8 minutes.

I could write pages on this topic, but for the sake of pacing and attention spans I’m going to zero in on the first part of the main melody of this piece and how intervals are being used intelligently.  Within a melody, you can move from one note to another either by a step or a skip.  Stepwise motion is when the distance between two notes is either a major or minor 2nd interval apart.  If looking at a keyboard, if you were to play all of the white keys in ascending order you would be playing in ascending, stepwise motion.  To put it another way, if the letter names of two notes are next to each other in the alphabet, it’s a step.  Any interval larger than that would be considered a skip.

As a general guideline, melodies should contain mostly stepwise motion.  The following 4-bar excerpt contains the main melodic material that the entire piece is built on, including the main motive of the game which appears in many forms throughout this piece and several others.  The red lines indicate steps and the blue lines indicate skips.  As you can see, this melody contains mostly steps but uses skips sparingly to create the most interesting moments of the melody:

The red lines are “steps,” and the blue lines are “skips”.

There are a few things that this accomplishes.  First, it creates contrast within the melody by using a balance of mostly-stepwise intervals and a few intelligently-placed skips.  If you wrote a melody that only used steps it would be more susceptible to sounding boring or predictable.  If you wrote a melody that only used skips, it would generally be less appealing to most listeners because their ears would have a hard time following the sporadic motion as the melody jumped up and down all over the place.  The phrases “variety is the spice of life,” and “everything in moderation,” should both be remembered when writing a melody.  For more supporting evidence, listen to the first major melodic phrase of the Star Wars theme (9 steps, 6 skips) by John Williams or the first phrase of Nascence from Journey (12 steps, 5 skips) by Austin Wintory.

Another way to effectively use intervals is to emphasize a specific interval that is less common, more colorful, or larger than the rest.  The first two measures of that same excerpt contains the main musical idea that echoes throughout this piece in different forms and creeps its way into several other tracks on the game.  The interval between the first and fourth notes are the most prominent/important of the phrase and, arguably, the entire soundtrack.  What interval does Uematsu use at the center of the game’s most frequently-heard track, reoccurring musical idea, and – as a result – the hero’s theme?  A major 7th, of course.  See what he did there?

The most prominent musical idea in Final Fantasy 7 is built around a major 7th interval.

How you can apply this lesson:

Whether you start writing a melody by improvising or simply writing down the ideas that pop into your head, you should see how you’re currently intervals and be mindful of any patterns that arise.  You may find that you’re barely using stepwise motion, or that you’re skipping all over the place.  Some people unknowingly write melody after melody without ever daring to use intervals larger than a 3rd or 4th, which is the equivalent of painting with only half of the color palette.  Unless you’re incredibly clever, using the same intervals all the time will make it more difficult for new melodies to sound distinct from the rest.  You can also proactively choose a specific interval to highlight something specific in a video game, like a character’s theme, a dramatic event, or specific emotion that recurs throughout the game.

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Lesson II: Basics of Keys, Scales, and which Chords to Use

Why this lesson is important:

If you’re a painter, you need to know which colors work together well.  Music is similar, and if you haven’t had any formal music training you may struggle to find which chords and notes ‘work’ as you compose.  By understanding a little bit about keys, scales, and the chords that fit together, you can quickly identify the most common chords available to you in the key that you’re writing in.  In other words, this helps remove a lot of the guess-work that may leave you hunting and pecking at the keyboard until something sounds right.

This is kind of 3 mini-lessons crammed into one, but that’s intentional because they’re so closely dependent on one another.

The Lesson:

The “key,” or “tonality,” of a piece of music tells you a lot of information before you even hear the first note.  If I’m writing a piece in the key of A Major, I know that ‘A’ is the root or home pitch of the piece and the A Major chord is the ‘tonic’ or home chord.  Most of the time, a piece in A Major will start and end with an A Major chord or note.  The first chord acts as an anchor for the listener, establishing ‘home base’ in their mind before you take them on a musical journey which will usually end with a return to home, as any good journey should.  This is another one of those guidelines that is not hard-and-fast rule, but you will find this to be true with most western music from pop songs to Beethoven symphonies.

In FF VII’s theme, the majority of the piece is in E Major and the sections written in E Major will be based on the E Major scale – which means that most of the musical material within that piece will be built with the 7 pitches contained within the E Major scale.  As a result, the primary chords used in the E Major sections of the piece are chords that you can construct using those same 7 pitches of an E Major scale.  In E Major, your scale contains the following pitches: E, F#, G#, A, B, C#, D# and the chords you can build using those pitches are E Major (E, G#, B), F# minor (F#, A, C#), G# minor (G#, B, D#), A Major (A, C#, E), B Major (B, D#, F#), C# Minor (C#, E, G#), and D# diminished (D#, F#, A).  While many songs and pieces stay strictly within these constraints, composers will often use this information as the foundation of their piece but explore musical ideas that reach past those limitations.

Most (or all) of a piece written in E Major will use the above notes and chords.

In the 40 bars of music that make up the main/most memorable sections of Uematsu’s piece (0:51 – 3:15 on the OST version), the melody adheres strictly to the pitches available in the E major scale.  As for the chords, there is only 1 bar that uses chords containing pitches outside of the E Major scale in this section. Being limited to only 7 notes may sound… well… limiting, but as Uematsu has illustrated: You can color inside the lines and still make amazing music.

Now, all of those letter names can give you a headache if you’re constantly trying to remember which letters belong where.  For this reason, roman numerals are frequently used to describe scale degrees and chord progressions.  By using roman numerals to describe and think about music, we can focus on the relationship between chords, scales, and music and know that – no matter what key you’re in – those relationships stay the same.

For example, one of the most common chord progressions in pop music is I – V – vi – IV (upper-case = Major chord, lower-case = minor chord).  No matter what key you’re playing and what note/chord you’re calling home, you can play this chord progression relative to your key.  Thus, a I – V – vi – IV progression in the key of C Major would contain the following chords: Cmaj – Gmaj – Amin – Fmaj.  The same I-V-vi-IV progression in E Major would be Emaj-Bmaj-C#min-Amaj.  It’s way easier to analyze music and learn about music theory using Roman numerals because the Roman numerals stay the same no matter which key you’re talking about.

How you can use this lesson:

Whether you compose the melody or the chord progressions first, you’ll quickly establish a tonal center.  If a new melody hits you while you’re humming in the shower and you run over the keyboard/guitar afterwards, you should be able to look at the pitches you’re using and determine which key you’re in.  Once you’ve established the key, you know which scale to use and which chords belong with that scale as a result – thus eliminating the hunting/pecking method of randomly playing notes and chords until you stumble upon something that sounds like it might fit.  You know what fits before you ever put pen to paper or hit the record button.

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Lesson III: Cadences

Why this lesson is important:

Most music will do two things very well: create tension, and resolve that tension.  Cadences help our music have a sense of resolution or finality at the end of a section or piece.  If you’re already writing music, you’re already using cadences – you just might not know which cadences you’re using – and how often.  This lesson helps you understand how to bring a piece/section back “home,” using a cadence, how you can trick your listeners and take them in an unexpected direction, and more.

The Lesson:

cadence usually refers to the chord progressions located at the end of a passage or piece of music, and will often refer specifically to the last two, three, or four chords of that music.  There are a few different types of cadences that we can use depending on the situation or desired effect, but for this post I’ll be talking about two specific cadences that appear in the main theme from Final Fantasy VII.

An authentic cadence is when a passage or piece ends with a V – I chord progression.  This is the most common cadence because it’s a very strong progression that sounds very natural to most listeners.

A deceptive cadence, on the other hand, tricks the listener by setting them up to EXPECT an authentic V – I cadence… but ends on an unexpected chord instead, leaving the listener hanging.  A commonly-used deceptive cadence is the V – vi cadence, during which the listener expects to hear a I chord after the V chord but instead hears the music resolve in a vi chord.  Not only are they tricked, but they are tricked and left to wallow in a minor chord instead of a happy, resolute major chord.  Mwahahaha…

After building up the excitement of the piece for awhile, Uematsu uses a deceptive cadence to end a section on a vi chord.  Since we’ve heard a V – I cadence with this part of the melody several times by this point, the vi is a total curve ball – which makes it interesting.  More importantly, this minor vi chord sets us up nicely for the next section, which is much darker and more ominous than the rest of the piece.

How you can use this lesson:

Obviously, if you’re looking to end a piece or section as resolutely as possible, you should probably use the authentic cadence: V-I.  Having said that, you should also take a look at how often you’re using V – I cadences in your music already.  If you find yourself ending every single piece you write with a V – I progression, it might be time to do a little more reading on cadences and harmonic progression so you can keep things interesting.  Also, gaming music is unique in that a lot it loops – indefinitely!  This creates an interesting challenge, and knowing a bit about cadences can help you manage them more effectively to end sections, pieces, or lead into looping sections.  For a great example of a unique cadence leading into a loop, listen to Barret’s theme.  Pay close attention to the very unconventional cadence which throws a very desperate, pained emotion into the music for about 15 seconds before the otherwise positive-sounding piece repeats itself.

Finally, it’s important to keep the melody in mind when approaching a cadence to avoid a train wreck.  Your ear will probably avoid this problem for you if you’re writing the melody and chords at the same time, but you don’t want to accidentally paint yourself into a corner with a melody that’s very difficult to harmonize at the end of a section.  Regardless of how cool the last 2 bars of melody may sound by themselves, your entire piece may suffer if you’re forced to harmonize them with a weak cadence.  This is especially important when composing the melody by itself before touching the harmony, as it will be more difficult to “hear” how a melody will lead from one section into another (Happily, I’ve found this to be one of those things that you can hear when you’re doing it well, but easily miss when you’re doing it poorly).

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Lesson IV: Ostinatos (or, Ostinati)

Why this lesson is important:

If you’ve listened to any video game music, you’ve probably heard several ostinatos. Ostinatos are massively useful – especially in game audio – because they can act as an anchor for the listener while simultaneously driving the rythmic pulse of the music.  Ostinatos probably made up a large percentage of early game audio, which needed to leverage repetitive rhythmic patterns to provide a harmonic progression while supplementing the percussion of the music.  If you’re writing chip tune music, you may already be using ostinatos without even realizing it and if you’re aware of what they are and their function you can make more deliberate choices in your tracks.  For more “modern” game scores, the function of providing an anchor – even for a single section within a larger piece – becomes a powerful tool to create contrast or provide a thematic effect without actually having a theme.

The Lesson:

What is an ostinato, exactly?  Basically, a musical phrase that repeats itself throughout a piece of music – usually within the same instrument/voice, and often at the same pitch.  Ostinatos might take several forms, including a baseline pattern that repeats itself across a chord progression, a stand-out percussion phrase, or the left-hand piano part in a good old fashioned boogie.  This may seem like an extremely broad definition, but hopefully a few examples can help reign us in a bit.

In Final Fantasy 7’s theme, we’re going to focus on the section that follows the 2nd video from Lesson III above.  After Uematsu dumps us into a minor key, the piece transitions from a hopeful, lush sound to a very ominous, foreboding section.  In my opinion, the use of an ostinato in the piano (OST version) or bass strings (orchestral version) creates most of the tension that can be felt during this section.

Not only does this little phrase reinforce the fact that we’re in a minor key, but it stays on the same pitches throughout most of the section to specifically reinforce the Emin chord (which is a “i” chord, using Roman numerals).  In addition to reinforcing this new tonality, this creates tension throughout the section as the ostinato continues to reinforce an E minor chord while the rest of the music throws in chords like a crunchy-sounding Emin6 (an Emin chord, plus a C# note) or an F#maj chord.

Ostinatos are extremely prevalent in video game music.  In the early days of game audio, the hardware limited composers to a handful of channels and possible sounds to work with.  For example, the NES had 5 available sound channels – two of which were usually reserved specifically for the lead melody and harmony.  That leaves 3 channels/lines to establish the harmonic progression AND the drive the pulse of the music.  Yikes.  Keep in mind that each of these channels were capable of playing a single note at a time, which provided an even greater challenge!

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Lesson V: Borrowed Chords

Why this lesson is important:

As stated earlier, a standard piece of music will be composed almost entirely of the same 7 chords made of the same 7 pitches.  While you can build an entire career within those constraints, with a little extra sophistication you can bring a little more color to your music by using Borrowed Chords.  Basically, this gives you more chords to choose from when harmonizing a melody.

The Lesson:

A Borrowed Chord is a chord borrowed from the key parallel to the one you’re writing in.  Parallel keys are major and minor keys that share the same root note.  E Major and E minor are two different keys that use two different scales, but they both use E as their root note.  Because they use different scales, they use different pitches and – since chords are built with the pitches of the scale – they contain different chords as a result.  The parallel key to E Major is E minor,  which contains the chords E minor, F# diminished, G major, A minor, B minor, C major, and D major.  Why not ask your good neighbor, E minor, if you can borrow a cup of sugar and a C Major chord for a little while?  That’s what neighbors are for.

Remember in the last lesson when I said that Uematsu uses chords in E Major for the main sections of the piece with the exception of 1 bar?  In that single bar, he adds a little magic by harmonizing the melody with chords borrowed from E minor.  Boom.  Magic.  

So, why is this so special?  There are a couple of reasons that this particular usage of borrowed chords is a fantastic example.  Assuming that the melody was composed before the chord progression, Uematsu – whether he noticed or not – could’ve easily found himself painted into a corner if he didn’t know that borrowing chords was possible.  If you follow through a textbook lesson for learning to harmonize a melody, you’ll first be taught to harmonize with chords that contain the melody’s pitch at any given time.  If the melody is playing a C, the triad chord you choose has to contain a C.  

If Uematsu chose to harmonize his existing melody with chords containing the melody’s pitches, he would’ve been limited to a small handful of options – none of which produce a particularly strong or remarkable chord progression.  Happily, a lot of the rock music that likely influenced him used this technique and other similar tricks to keep things interesting.

How you can use this lesson:

Take a look at a piece – either an old one, a new one, or the next one you haven’t even started yet.  Figure out which key it’s in, and then look up what chords are available from the parallel key.  Remember – if you’re writing in C Major, the parallel key is in C minor.  A quick Google search will help you find a list of the chords available in that parallel key.  Next, figure out which chords you’ve been using behind your melodies and experiment with substituting chords from the parallel key – especially when you feel like the chord progression could stand to be a little stronger.


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Lesson VI: Common-tone Modulation

Why this is important:

You could write music for years without ever using modulation, but adding a modulation – or key change – to a piece of music creates a very dramatic effect.  You can use a modulation to create an epic, rising effect (see Lesson VII).  Alternatively, you can use a modulation to go from a major (happy-sounding) key to a minor (sad/ominous-sounding key) as Uematsu did in Lesson III, where he uses a deceptive cadence to pivot us into a minor key.  Regardless, the use of modulations in music is not only common amongst great composers and song writers – it’s fun and interesting!  A very easy-to-use technique for modulation is called common-tone modulation, and so we’ll start there.

The Lesson:

Imagine that your favorite TV show has just aired its series finale, and the network has decided to produce a spin-off show that – while belonging to the same genre as the original show – is very different than what you’re used to.  How do they pull off these new shows without losing the entire audience from the original series, thus avoiding the need to start over from scratch?  By leveraging a character who existed in the first series and will continue on in the second series.  This character provides an anchor of familiarity and a point of reference for the new series, and a common-tone modulation works in a similar fashion.

Modulation, as I stated earlier, occurs when the tonal center of a piece of music changes.  This results in the use of a new root note, scale, and set of chords as per Lesson II above.  While this effect can be totally awesome to use in your music, you shouldn’t just dump your listeners into a new key without an anchor or some sense of familiarity.  That would be very jarring and unpleasant to listen to, even if the average listener can’t articulate why it’s unpleasant.  If you don’t want your modulation to sound like you accidentally played a wrong chord and decided to run with it, you need to use an anchor to pivot your piece into the new key.

In a common-tone modulation, you leverage a repeated or sustained note from the original key as a bridge to carry the music into a new key which also contains that note.  For example, if you’re in the key of C major and ending a section with a C major chord, you may modulate into G major by way of the G note, which is found in both the C major chord and the G major chord.  In OST version of Final Fantasy VII’s theme, a commom-tone modulation is used to raise the piece from Emajor into Gmajor, by using B as the common-tone.  

How you can use this lesson:

This technique isn’t rocket surgery, but it’s very effective so long as you’re using it very deliberately.  To begin using this technique, I would recommend choosing (or writing) a piece of music with a strong melody or a very catchy ostinato (think Jenova).  This technique works well with both looping- and scored/cued music that may accompany a scene, trailer, or event in the game.  Because video game music is short-form music by nature, the modulation point should be chosen very carefully and would best be used to transition to a new section or to repeat an existing section of music as Uematsu did with the above excerpt.  By modulating and repeating the exact same musical material in a new key, an emotionally lifting effect is achieved while content is recycled in an interesting way.

Finally, keep in mind that – because most video game music loops – if you modulate to a new key you will ultimately have to modulate back to the original key at some point.  Make sure to plan/write accordingly!

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Lesson VII: Common-chord Modulation

 Why this lesson is important:

As discussed in Lesson VI, modulation creates variety in your music – which is especially important in music that will be heard repeatedly throughout gameplay.  The more tools you have at your disposal to keep it interesting for the player, the better.  Common-chord modulation is another method for changing keys in your music, and if you’ve become comfortable with the other lessons in this post you have all of the knowledge you need to execute this technique effectively.

The Lesson:

common-chord modulation is achieved by transitioning from the original key to the new key through a chord that occurs in both keys.  Just as a common-tone modulation uses a shared tone to anchor the listener through the modulation, a common-chord modulation uses a shared chord – called the pivot chord – to make the transition between keys.

For example, you’ll remember from Lesson II the key of E Major contains the following chords: E Major, F# minor, G# minor, A Major, B Major, C# Minor, and D# diminished.  If I wanted to modulate to the key of D major, I could use any chord that occurs in both keys as my pivot chord.  The key of D major contains the following chords: D major, E minor, F# minor, G major, A major, B minor,and  C# diminished.  This gives us two possible options for our pivot chord – F# minor and A major – because these chords exist in both keys.

For this example, we’ll actually be looking at the same exact place in the music as we did in Lesson VI – but not the version found on the original soundtrack.  This time, we’re going to look at how that modulation occurs in the orchestral version.  Recall that in Lesson VI above, Uematsu uses a common-tone modulation to make the jump from E Major to G major on the OST version of the track.  On the Final Fantasy VII: Reunion Tracks album released in 1997, Uematsu collaborated with Shiro Hamaguchi to arrange this theme for a full orchestral performance.  It’s a gorgeous arrangement with some additional ear-candy built into it, including the new common-chord modulation from E Major to G major.

BUT, that’s not all.  The real magic is which chords they used as the pivot chords.  Remember the borrowed chord example from Lesson V, when Uematsu borrows a bVI and a bVII chord from the parallel minor key to spice things up a bit?  I’m not sure if this was by original design or a happy coincidence that was allowed to happen because of the keys Uematsu chose to use in the original soundtrack, but they were able to use the borrowed bVI and bVII chords as the pivot chords!  It’s a little easier to digest if you see the Roman numeral analysis and hear the modulation in the video below: http://www.youtube.com/embed/PUyfi6KodzY?controls=0&showinfo=0&rel=0

See what they did there?  In E Major, that same bVI-bVII chord trick we’ve been hearing uses C major and D major chords.  The destination key of G major contains both of those chords (IV and V chords, respectively), and as a result they use the bVI – bVII chord progression in E major AND as a IV – V – I progression in the new G major key (an authentic cadence, as per Lesson III).  Mind.  Blown.  Effectively, they combine Lessons II, III, and V in order to pull off the common-chord modulation.  See accompanying illustration:

How to use this lesson:

Choose a piece you’re working on, or one that you’ve already finished.  Decide where you’d like to place a modulation (perhaps repeat a section that already exists?), and use this Wikipedia page to identify the relative minor and closely-related keys.  Choosing from these closely-related keys will be easier to modulate to, as they already share several common tones/chords.  While using borrowed chords to modulate to a new key is a neat trick, it’s not necessary to try until you’re comfortable with a basic common-chord modulation.

Next, all you have to do is pick a key you’d like to end up in.  Experiment by playing your melody/ostinatos in the original key followed immediately by the destination key.  Remember that each modulation will have to return to the original key if your music is looping, so you’ll have to modulate twice.

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Conclusion and Next Steps:

Phew!  Still with me?  That was a lot of information, and you should not try to implement all of these at once.  Get comfortable with one new technique until you’ve internalized it before moving on to the next one.  Just like in an RPG, it’s all about gradual progress and accumulating new skills, abilities, and Materia along the way.  Take your time, and have some fun with it.

Final Fantasy game & Music

Final Fantasy VII is a role-playing video game developed by Square (now Square Enix) and published by Sony Computer Entertainment as the seventh installment in the Final Fantasy series. Released in 1997, the game sparked the release of a collection of media centered on the game entitled the Compilation of Final Fantasy VII. The music of the Final Fantasy VII series includes not only the soundtrack to the original game and its associated albums, but also the soundtracks and music albums released for the other titles in the collection.

The first album produced was Final Fantasy VII Original Soundtrack, a compilation of all the music in the game. It was released as a soundtrack album on four CDs by DigiCube in 1997. A selection of tracks from the album was released in the single-disc Reunion Tracks by DigiCube the same year. Piano Collections Final Fantasy VII, an album featuring piano arrangements of pieces from the soundtrack, was released in 2003 by DigiCube, and Square Enix began reprinting all three albums in 2004. To date, these are the only released albums based on the original game’s soundtrack, and were solely composed by regular series composer Nobuo Uematsu; his role for the majority of subsequent albums has been filled by Masashi Hamauzu and Takeharu Ishimoto.

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The Compilation of Final Fantasy VII began eight years after the release of Final Fantasy VII with the release of the animated film sequel Advent Children in 2005. The soundtracks for each of the titles in the collection are included in an album, starting with the album release of the soundtrack to Advent Children that year. The following year, Nippon Crown released a soundtrack album to correspond with the video game Dirge of Cerberus, while Square Enix launched a download-only collection of music from the multiplayer mode of the game, which was only released in Japan. After the launch of the game Crisis Core in 2007, Warner Music Japan produced the title’s soundtrack.

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The latest album in the collection, Before Crisis: Final Fantasy VII & Last Order: Final Fantasy VII Original Soundtrack, was released by Square Enix the same year as a combined soundtrack album for the game Before Crisis and the animated movie Last Order.

The original music received highly positive reviews from critics, who found many of the tunes to be memorable and noted the emotional intensity of several of the tracks. The reception for the other albums has been mixed, with reactions ranging from enthusiastic praise to disappointment. Several pieces from the soundtrack, particularly “One-Winged Angel” and “Aeris’ Theme”, remain popular and have been performed numerous times in orchestral concert series such as Dear Friends: Music from Final Fantasy and Tour de Japon: Music from Final Fantasy. Music from the Original Soundtrack has been included in arranged albums and compilations by Square as well as outside groups.

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Beautiful Music

Por una cabeza (Tango) de Carlos Gardel – Partitura

Por una cabeza (Tango) de Carlos Gardel (piano solo con partitura sheet music)

Carlos Gardel

Carlos Gardel fue un cantante, compositor y actor de cine. Es el más conocido representante (del género) en la historia del tango. Iniciador y máximo exponente del tango canción,​ fue uno de los intérpretes más importantes de la música popular mundial en la primera mitad del siglo XX,​ por la calidad de su voz, por la cantidad de discos vendidos (como cantante y como compositor), por sus numerosas películas relacionadas con el tango y por su repercusión mundial.

carlos gardel partitura de tango

No hay unanimidad sobre el lugar y la fecha de su nacimiento. La hipótesis uruguayista sostiene que nació en Tacuarembó (Uruguay), un 11 de diciembre entre 1883 y 1887. La hipótesis francesista sostiene que nació en Toulouse (Francia) el 11 de diciembre de 1890. Hay unanimidad en el hecho de que vivió desde su infancia en Buenos Aires y se nacionalizó argentino en 1923. Falleció el 24 de junio de 1935 en Medellín, Colombia, en un accidente aéreo.

La persona y la imagen de Gardel ha sido objeto de idolatría popular, especialmente en Argentina y Uruguay, colocándolo en un lugar de mito y símbolo cultural que aún mantiene su vigencia.

gardel partitura

En 2003 la voz de Gardel fue registrada por la Unesco en el programa Memoria del Mundo, dedicado a la preservación de documentos pertenecientes al patrimonio histórico de los pueblos del mundo. Al mismo tiempo, se hace alusión a su voz y su recuerdo con la frase “cada día, canta mejor”.

Canto de Gardel

En 1915, el tenor italiano Enrico Caruso vino a la Argentina a cantar al Teatro Colón y al volverse en barco al Brasil se dio la coincidencia de que en él se encontrase Carlos Gardel, que era amigo de muchos de los profesores de la Orquesta Estable. Algunos de ellos lo convencieron para que se encontrara con el famoso italiano. Así lo hizo y una vez que Caruso lo escuchó cantar un tango, una zamba y una cueca, el italiano, le comentó: “Si usted hubiera estudiado seriamente, sería el mejor barítono del mundo”. Con el tiempo, efectivamente, Carlos Gardel eligió como maestro al prestigioso profesor Alberto Castellanos, quien le cambió el registro de tenor a barítono. Por eso, en los primeros discos de Gardel, se percibe su canto en un tono más agudo; mientras que en los últimos se lo escucha más cómodo en el registro apropiado.

Su voz fue evolucionando, ajustando su dicción a los cambios de los sistemas de grabaciones acústicas. El maestro Eduardo Bonessi, quien fue profesor de canto de Gardel dijo hacia 1963: Era de una calidad extraordinaria y de un timbre maravilloso para el tango. Tenía un registro de barítono brillante y jamás desafinaba. En cuanto a su tesitura, su extensión alcanzaba a «dos octavos», que manejaba a plena satisfacción. Es una buena extensión para un cantor popular. Gardel poseía un gran temperamento ―expresivo al máximo― y estaba dotado naturalmente de un instrumento en la garganta. Un instrumento que luego perfeccionó y supo conservar.

Era un hombre conocedor de su valor, que no derrochaba su voz como muchos suponen. Tenía una laringe completamente sana y esa era una de las razones por las cuales le resultaba fácil pasar de los graves a los agudos y viceversa… Era estudioso y responsable. Sabíase único en el género y cuidaba su voz. Consciente de que la voz se cuida también mediante el cuidado físico, hacía gimnasia diariamente durante una hora o más… De acuerdo a la voz que tenía y al modo de emplearla, si Gardel hubiese llegado a vivir cien años, hubiera seguido cantando igual. Eduardo Bonessi.

En su libro Carlos Gardel: a la luz de la Historia,​ de la Fundación BankBoston, Montevideo, 2000, el arquitecto Nelson Bayardo, que durante más de treinta años investigó la vida y los orígenes de Carlos Gardel, describe la voz de del cantante resaltando cinco aspectos:

carlos gardel partitura

«Carlos Gardel, el corazón del tango», por el fileteador Martiniano Arce (2006).

  • Un innato sentido musical que le permitió aventurarse sin esfuerzo en más de 30 géneros musicales diferentes.
  • Un excepcional timbre vocal, que ha cambiado de tenor, al principio, para acercarse al barítono al final de su vida, incluso cuando cantaba la segunda parte en dúo con Razzano, lo que le permitió, más tarde, grabar los inolvidables duetos con él mismo, en los que cantaba ambas partes.
  • Una versatilidad sin igual, gracias a la cual podía realizar una amplia gama de estilos, ya sea dramático o cómico, sentimental o irónico, evocador o grotescos. Cada vez, como solía decir Ayestarán (musicólogo uruguayo) parecido pero diferente al mismo tiempo. El vivaz Gardel en «Te fuiste, ¡jajá!» no se parece a la angustiada voz de «Mi noche triste», dos canciones con idéntico contenido, un hombre abandonado por su esposa, pero en el que el sonido de las dos primeras palabras (Te fuiste y Percanta) es suficiente para que el oyente adivine de inmediato el tono alegre o triste de cada canción.
  • Una creatividad sin límites, que fue capaz de utilizar sencillamente porque él fue quien había inventado el tango-canción, y por lo tanto fue la única persona que pudo determinar su estilo. Utilizó varios trucos, incluyendo pequeños discursos antes o durante sus canciones, risas, toses e interrupciones; el clásico «jmmm» que esparció a lo largo de sus canciones; silencios espontáneos que rozaban lo dramático, como en Anoche a las dos (una canción que, si no fuera Gardel quien la cantara, sería inmediatamente olvidable) en la que adapta su voz para cantar las líneas del marido traicionado, de un cliente atento en un café y un oficial de policía: algo que, sin su original manera de realizar un arte que le era tan propia, habría bordeado el ridículo, como otras piezas que a veces simplemente no eran suficientemente buenas para el cantante.
  • Por último, su expresividad, que, según el famoso Rubén Pesce, lo convirtió en un «actor tanguero». Casto Canel dijo al respecto que «él se escapa de las mecánicas reglas del metro, llegando más temprano, tarde o fuera de tiempo, acortando o alargando una frase, a veces puede ser oído un riguroso refinamiento, o un poderoso y sofocante silencio; con una palabra puede crear una experiencia musical más profunda que la alcanzable por puros patrones aritméticos».

Con respecto a la «N» que Gardel pronunciaba como una «R», el cantante argentino Edmundo Rivero, en un libro dedicado exclusivamente al análisis técnico de su canto, dio la siguiente explicación: Se debe a que la «n» es consonante líquida y puede perder su sonoridad al encontrarse con una consonante sorda [una «t» o una «p»], de las que obstruyen el pasaje del aire (son oclusivas), y al pronunciar anterior a ellas la «n», esta se apoya en la nariz y ―sabiendo que en el canto elevado esto es antiestético y reprochado― Gardel enviaba el aire directamente hacia adelante (siempre apoyada).

Día de Carlos Gardel

gardel partitura

Placa conmemorativa por el centenario de su nacimiento, en México, D. F, 1990 (A pesar de que nunca visitó México).

El 24 de junio de 2005, por decisión conjunta de las autoridades municipales de las ciudades de Buenos Aires, Montevideo, Tacuarembó y Medellín (donde falleció), se recordaron los 70 años de la muerte de Carlos Gardel. Por primera vez, se obvió la conmemoración del llamado Día de Carlos Gardel en la ciudad francesa de Toulouse.

Día del Tango

En Argentina se celebra cada 11 de diciembre el Día del Tango, debido a que ese día nacieron Julio de Caro y Carlos Gardel.

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Disney – Baby Mine Jim Brickman, piano (sheet music)

Table of Contents
  • Disney Baby Mine Jim Brickman, piano with sheet music
  • Lyrics:
  • Jim Brickman
  • Disney -Baby Mine

Disney Baby Mine Jim Brickman, piano with sheet music available from our Library.

Disney sheet music

Lyrics:

Baby mine, don’t you cry
Baby mine, dry your eyes
Rest your head close to my heart
Never to part


Baby of mine
Little one, when you play
Don’t you mind what they say
Let those eyes sparkle and shine
Never a tear


Baby of mine
From your head to your toes (Baby mine)
You’re so sweet, goodness knows (Baby mine)
You are so precious to me
Cute as can be


Baby of mine
Baby mine
Baby mine

Jim Brickman

James Merrill Brickman (born November 20, 1961) is an American pop songwriter, pianist and radio host. Brickman has earned two Grammy nominations for his albums Peace (2003) for Best Instrumental, and Faith (2009) for Best New Age Album. He won a Canadian Country Music Award, a Dove Award presented by the Gospel Music Association, and was twice named Songwriter of the Year by SESAC. Billboard lists 22 of his albums reaching No. 1 on the New Age chart, and 16 of his songs reaching Top 10 on the Adult Contemporary chart. Four of his albums were certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA).

Since 1997, he has hosted his own radio show, “The Jim Brickman Show”, which is carried on radio stations throughout the United States.

Brickman has collaborated with Lady A, Johnny Mathis, Kenny Rogers, Michael W. Smith, Leslie Odom Jr., Martina McBride, Megan Hilty, Donny Osmond, Delta Goodrem, Olivia Newton-John, Carly Simon, John Oates, Five for Fighting, Michael Bolton, Gerald Levert, Jane Krakowski, Richie McDonald and many others.

Disney -Baby Mine

“Baby Mine”
Song by Betty Noyes
Released1941
GenreLullaby, ballad
Length2:05
Composer(s)Frank Churchill
Lyricist(s)Ned Washington

Baby Mine” is a song from the 1941 Disney animated feature Dumbo. The music is by Frank Churchill, with lyrics by Ned Washington. Betty Noyes recorded the vocals for the original film version. In the film, Dumbo’s mother, Mrs. Jumbo, an elephant locked in a circus wagon, cradles her baby Dumbo with her trunk while this lullaby is sung. It is also the last appearance of the circus animals.

The song was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song at the 14th Academy Awards in 1942. It is also listed on AFI‘s “100 Years… 100 Songs” as one of America’s greatest film songs.

Early popular recordings include those by Les Brown, Glenn Miller, and Jane Froman, followed by several others; and decades later, the song regained attention Bette Midler covered the song on the 1988 Beaches soundtrack. In the same year, Bonnie Raitt and Was (Not Was) recorded the song for the album, Stay Awake: Various Interpretations of Music from Vintage Disney Films.

Alison Krauss recorded the song for the 1996 album The Best of Country Sing the Best of Disney. Her version peaked at number 82 on the RPM Country Tracks chart in Canada. Krauss’ cover earned her a Grammy nomination for Best Female Country Vocal Performance in 1997.

Soap actress Kassie DePaiva recorded the song with Jim Brickman for The Disney Songbook.

An instrumental version by violinist Jenny Oaks Baker was included in the Grammy-nominated album Wish Upon a Star, released in 2011.

There have been numerous Disney compilation releases of the original, as well as an Original Cast recording from the musical, Disney’s On the Record: A New Musical Review

The song is used recurrently in the AMC television drama Halt and Catch Fire as a lullaby that Donna Clark (Kerry Bishé) sings to her daughters.

Sharon Rooney and Arcade Fire covered the song for the 2019 live-action remake of Dumbo, while Norwegian singer Aurora performed the song for the trailer.

The song also features in the 2019 Netflix sci-fi drama I Am Mother, sung by Clara Rugaard and later by Nina Ferro.

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Film & TV Music

EBB TIDE (with sheet music download)

“Ebb Tide” is a popular song, written in 1953 by the lyricist Carl Sigman and composer Robert Maxwell. The song’s build up is to illustrate the ocean waves coming in and out to and from the shores, due to the ebb tides. The first three notes are identical to the first three notes of the Erroll Garner song “Misty” (1954). This song is a key part of the original soundtrack of the film Sweet Bird of Youth

EBB TIDE (with sheet music download)

Download this sheet music at the Sheet Music Library (pdf)

sheet music

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Read the full article here)

Lyrics:

First the tide rushes in
Plants a kiss on the shore
Then rolls out to sea
And the sea is very still once more
So I rush to your side
Like the oncoming tide
With one burning thought
Will your arms open wide
At last we’re face to face
And as we kiss through an embrace
I can tell, I, I can feel
You are love, you are real
Really mine in the rain
In the dark, in the sun
Like the tide at its ebb
I’m at peace in the web of your arms
Ebb tide

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