The Sheet Music Library (PDF) is a non-profit, subscription library of piano, guitar and vocal scores. Sheet music. Partituras. Partitions. Spartiti. Noten. Partituur. Партиту́ра. 망할 음악 Partitur. 楽譜 Musical scores. 乐谱 Nuty. Bladmuziek. Noty. Free SHEET MUSIC PDFs for educational purposes only.
Beethoven was a lover of nature who spent a great deal of his time on walks in the country. He frequently left Vienna to work in rural locations. The composer said that the Sixth Symphony is “more the expression of feeling than painting”, a point underlined by the title of the first movement.
The first sketches of the Pastoral Symphony appeared in 1802. It was composed simultaneously with Beethoven’s more famous—and fierier—Fifth Symphony. Both symphonies were premiered in a long and under-rehearsed concert in the Theater an der Wien in Vienna on 22 December 1808.
Frank A. D’Accone suggested that Beethoven borrowed the programmatic ideas (a shepherd’s pipe, birds singing, streams flowing, and a thunderstorm) for his five-movement narrative layout from Le Portrait musical de la Nature ou Grande Symphonie, which was composed by Justin Heinrich Knecht (1752–1817) in 1784.
The symphony has five, rather than the four movements typical of symphonies preceding Beethoven’s time. Beethoven wrote a programmatic title at the beginning of each movement:
Erwachen heiterer Empfindungen bei der Ankunft auf dem Lande
Awakening of cheerful feelings on arrival in the countryside
Hirtengesang. Frohe und dankbare Gefühle nach dem Sturm
Shepherd’s song. Cheerful and thankful feelings after the storm
The third movement ends on an imperfect cadence that leads straight into the fourth. The fourth movement leads straight into the fifth without a pause. A performance of the work lasts about 40 minutes.
Search Posts by Categories:
and subscribe to our social channels for news and music updates:
I. Allegro ma non troppo
The symphony begins with a placid and cheerful movement depicting the composer’s feelings as he arrives in the country. The movement, in 24 meter, is in sonata form, and its motifs are extensively developed. At several points, Beethoven builds up orchestral texture by multiple repetitions of very short motifs. Yvonne Frindle commented that “the infinite repetition of pattern in nature [is] conveyed through rhythmic cells, its immensity through sustained pure harmonies.”
II. Andante molto mosso
The second movement is another sonata-form movement, this time in 128 and in the key of B♭ major, the subdominant of the main key of the work. It begins with the strings playing a motif that imitates flowing water. The cello section is divided, with just two players playing the flowing-water notes on muted instruments, and the remaining cellos playing mostly pizzicato notes together with the double basses.
The third movement is a scherzo in 34 time, which depicts country folk dancing and reveling. It is in F major, returning to the main key of the symphony. The movement is an altered version of the usual form for scherzi, in that the trio appears twice rather than just once, and the third appearance of the scherzo theme is truncated. Perhaps to accommodate this rather spacious arrangement, Beethoven did not mark the usual internal repeats of the scherzo and the trio. Theodor Adorno identifies this scherzo as the model for the scherzos by Anton Bruckner.
The final return of the theme conveys a riotous atmosphere with a faster tempo. The movement ends abruptly, leading without a pause into the fourth movement.
The fourth movement, in F minor and 44 time, depicts a violent thunderstorm with painstaking realism, building from just a few drops of rain to a great climax with thunder, lightning, high winds, and sheets of rain. The storm eventually passes, with an occasional peal of thunder still heard in the distance. There is a seamless transition into the final movement. This movement parallels Mozart‘s procedure in his String Quintet in G minor K. 516 of 1787, which likewise prefaces a serene final movement with a long, emotionally stormy introduction.
The finale, which is in F major, is in 68 time. The movement is in sonata rondo form, meaning that the main theme appears in the tonic key at the beginning of the development as well as the exposition and the recapitulation. Like many finales, this movement emphasizes a symmetrical eight-bar theme, in this case representing the shepherds’ song of thanksgiving.
The coda starts quietly and gradually builds to an ecstatic culmination for the full orchestra (minus “storm instruments”) with the first violins playing very rapid triplet tremolo on a high F. There follows a fervent passage suggestive of prayer, marked by Beethoven pianissimo, sotto voce; most conductors slow the tempo for this passage. After a brief period of afterglow, the work ends with two emphatic F-major chords.
L’Orchestre philharmonique de Radio France dirigé par Myung-Whun Chung interprète la “Symphonie fantastique” d’Hector Berlioz. Enregistré le 13 septembre 2013 à la Salle Pleyel (Paris). 00:35 1er mouvement: Rêveries – Passions. Largo – Allegro agitato e appassionato assai – Religiosamente 15:08 2eme mouvement: Un bal. Valse. Allegro non troppo 22:09 3eme mouvement: Scène aux champs. Adagio 39:53 4eme mouvement: Marche au supplice. Allegretto non troppo 00:00 5eme mouvement: Songe d’une nuit de sabbat. Larghetto – Allegro
La Symphonie fantastique a été créée en 1830, en plein courant du romantisme, l’année de la bataille d’Hernani. Première “musique à programme”, qui fait éclater le cadre strictement classique de la symphonie, elle est un chef-d’œuvre en avance sur son temps, influençant bien des compositeurs romantiques, Liszt, Wagner ou Mahler. Narration à la fois autobiographique et fantasmée de son amour pour l’actrice Harriet Smithson, l’œuvre tourne autour d’une “idée fixe” qui revient de façon obsessionnelle dans les différents mouvements. Après une Introduction lente et incertaine, l’idée fixe est exposée puis développée dans le premier mouvement Allegro.
Une valse légère et célèbre retentit dans le deuxième mouvement “ Un bal”, qui s’achève dans une coda effrénée. L’Adagio de la Scène aux champs commence avec un duo hautbois / cor anglais dressant un paysage champêtre, avant une série de variations rappelant Beethoven. La Marche au supplice, d’une durée courte, est une vision d’horreur où le héros s’imagine avoir tué sa bien-aimée. Le dernier mouvement , Songe d’une Nuit de Sabbat est sans doute celui qui va le plus loin dans les innovations musicales, l’annonce du Dies Irae par deux cloches sonnant dans le vide est sans doute le passage le plus effrayant.
Search Posts by Categories:
and subscribe to our social channels for news and music updates:
Erik Satie (composer and pianist) (1866-1925). Download his sheet music in our Library.
Erik Satie (French composer and pianist) Erik Alfred Leslie Satiewas a famous French composer and pianist who is remembered for his unconventional and often humorous style of music. He was born in the middle of the 19th century in France and began his musical education under a local church organist. He enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire at the age of 13, but was dismissed as a very insignificant and lazy student after two and half years.
He later reentered the Conservatory, but failed to change his teachers’ opinion and left within year. He then joined French military but was discharged after a few months due to a severe case of self-inflicted bronchitis.
After recouping, he began his career as a pianist at the Le Chat Noir Café-Cabaret in Montmartre, struggling all the while to gain recognition and financial stability. He became famous at the age of 45, when Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy played his works at concerts. Very soon, musicians of the younger generation began to appreciate his work, which also lead to the formation of the ‘Les Six’. However, his work was truly recognized only after his death; and within a decade of his death, he began to be hailed as a genius.
Erik Alfred Leslie Satie was born in the coastal town of Honfleur in the Normandy region of France on 17 May 1866. His father Jules Alfred Satie initially worked as a ship broker. Later, he moved with his family to Paris, where he became a translator.His mother Jane Leslie Anton was of Scottish origin. She had a musical inclination and wrote a few pieces for piano. Satie was born eldest of his parents’ three children, having a younger sister named Olga Lafosse and a brother named Conrad.Satie’s family lived in Paris until their mother’s death in 1872.
Search Posts by Categories:
and subscribe to our social channels for news and music updates:
Thereafter, they were sent back to Honfleur to live with their paternal grandfather, who brought them up under strict Catholic tradition.As a child, Satie showed an interest in music; and in 1874, his grandfather made an arrangement for him to study piano under the organist at a local church. His teacher Vinot introduced him to liturgical music, especially the Gregorian chant.
This early exposure proved to be a major influence on his later works.During his stay at Honfleur, Satie was influenced by his uncle, whom he called ‘Uncle Sea Bird’ because he spent a lot time sitting in his boat. Sea Bird took him to see circuses and plays. On those occasions, he was able to get glimpses of the backstage.In 1878, Satie’s piano teacher left Honfleur. In the same year, his grandmother died, and the children were sent back to Paris to live with their father.His father married Eugenie nee Bametche, a musically gifted piano teacher, in 1879.
Around the same time, Satie enrolled in the Paris Conservatoire. Very soon, he started giving auditions to get admission in the piano class, but he failed each time.His teachers found his piano techniques uninspiring, and some of them also called him the laziest student of the class. After two and a half years, he was dismissed from the Conservatoire.During his years at the Conservatoire, Satie had started writing music for piano.
The first two pieces he wrote were ‘Valse-Ballet’ and ‘Fantaisie-Valse’. He published them in 1885, numbering ‘Valse-Ballet’ as opus 62 instead of opus 1.Even after being dismissed from the Conservatoire, Satie continued to sit in the biannual examinations to enter the intermediate class.
He finally reentered the institution after passing the examination at the end of 1885. However, his teachers’ opinions remained as biased as before.As he was unable to change his teachers’ perceptions, Satie left the Conservatoire in November 1886 and volunteered for army service.
He was assigned to the 33rd Infantry Regiment as a reservist. Although his duties were comparatively light, he found his job too onerous for his liking and therefore made plans to leave.Hoping to be dismissed from the army, he began to sneak out of his barrack at night and moved about bare-chested in the cold winter air. As a result, he caught severe bronchitis.In April 1887, he was back to Paris on a two-month medical leave, which was extended several times before he was discharged from the service in November 1887.
While recouping at home from his ailment, he started working on two of his well-known works, ‘Trois Sarabandes’ and ‘Gymnopédies’.After completing the sketches of some of his initial works, he began to focus on ‘Sarabandes’, completing it on 18 September 1887. In December, he moved to Montmartre, the bohemian part of Paris, after receiving a gift of 1600 francs from his father. In the same year, he befriended famous composer Claude Debussy.
Along with Bach’s Wohltemperierte Clavier, the Chopin Twenty-four Preludes Op. 28 are at the core of any concert pianist’s training by being an excellent introduction to the study of Chopin’s piano works and to the practice of his influences as a pianist and teacher. The Preludes also reveal the fact that Chopin’s compositions were influenced equally by the expression of emotions and by the demands of musical form. In these pieces, Chopin developed an already established genre into something quite extraordinary.
Date of composition
Although completed and published as a set in 1839, there is considerable controversy regarding their date of origin, and how many and which preludes were composed or completed in Majorca.
Cortot believed that only the slow-moving preludes could have been composed there because Chopin’s cell-like room was too resonant, and the vibrations of the piano too great, for the chromatic sequences of the faster pieces. Eigeldinger considers the Preludes as a complete work, basing his study on its final realization at the midpoint of Chopin’s composing career.
The following table showing the years the preludes Op. 28 were composed is taken from the Henle edition.
The preludes were first published in Paris in June 1839 by Catelin with the French rights and dedication to Camille Pleyel. The German edition was published in the same year by Kistner in Leipzig, and was dedicated to J.C. Kessler. Chopin sent his manuscript to Fontana for copying on 22 January 1839 which therefore marks the final date for his revisions and is the only real evidence that the work was completed prior to that date.
Fontana’s copy was the basis for the first German edition, while Chopin’s manuscript was the basis for the first French edition. Amongst the most popular editions used today is the Paderewski edition (1949) from The Fryderyk Chopin Institute of Polish Music Publications. The editors aim “to establish a text which fully reveals Chopin’s thought and corresponds to his intentions as closely as possible” and is based upon Chopin’s autograph manuscripts and the copies approved by him, and first editions.
Also in frequent use is the German Urtext (1982) which uses source material from the Autograph and first French edition, and the Cortot edition, (1957) published by Salabert, in which Cortot lists his titles for each prelude and includes interpretative and technical practice suggestions.
Besides George Sand’s infamous “Raindrop” title to the fifteenth prelude, the most famous descriptive titles are those by Alfred Cortot which are included in his edition of the Preludes published by Salabert.
The most famous critical responses to the Preludes are found in reviews from Liszt and Schumann. Liszt recognized the significance of the work, knowing that Chopin had created an influential new genre that would inspire composers into the future.
Chopin’s preludes are unique compositions. They are not simply, as their title would suggest, pieces intended as an introduction to something further; they are poetic preludes similar to those of a great contemporary poet [Lamartine] which gently ease the soul into a golden dream world and then whisk it away to the highest realms of the ideal. Admirable in their diversity, they require scrupulous examination of the workmanship and thought which have gone into them before they can be properly appreciated. Even then they still retain the appearance of spontaneous improvisations produced without the slightest effort. They possess that freedom and charm which characterize works of genius.
Revue et gazette musicale de Paris. 2 May 1842. p. 246.
Schumann reacted to the Preludes with less enthusiasm, being somewhat disturbed at their diversity:
Preludes are strange pieces. I confess I imagined them differently, and designed in the grandest style, like his Etudes. But almost the opposite is true: they are sketches, beginnings of Etudes, or, so to speak, ruins, eagle wings, a wild motley of pieces. But each piece, written in a fine, pearly hand, shows: ‘Frederick Chopin wrote it.’ One recognises him in the pauses by the passionate breathing. He is and remains the boldest and proudest poetic mind of the time. The collection also contains the morbid, the feverish, the repellent. May each search what suits him; may only the philistine stay away!
Performance The opinion of the Preludes being, as Schumann stated, a “wild motley of pieces”, prevailed through to this century until Cortot and Busoni popularised the practice of playing the complete set.
Certainly, performing complete works such as the Preludes or Études was not customary before the beginning of this century, and we know from reviews of Chopin’s concerts that he never played the complete Op. 28 in public. Keeping with traditions of that period, the most he played at the one time were four preludes in a concert on the 26 April 1841. Today, most concert pianists have the complete Op. 28 in their repertoire and it is not uncommon to see the entire work programmed or at least several preludes performed as a group.
However, some pianists and critics do consider that programming complete sets of Chopin’s works, such as the twenty-four preludes, or either book of études, is not what Chopin intended and is rather an aesthetic of our time, in which there is more emphasis upon performing large-scale works. Some also question the musical grounds for grouping pieces together that have little more in commoner than their formal structure or generic title. Also, to be considered is the matter of creating a balanced program: when performed in recital as a whole, the Preludes would be the major work as they have a duration of over forty minutes. In any case, the Chopin Twenty-four Preludes Op. 28 hold a unique position in the literature for the piano and should be part of every pianist’s repertoire.
George Gershwin was one of the most significant American composers of the 20th century, known for popular stage and screen numbers as well as classical compositions.
Who Was George Gershwin?
George Gershwin dropped out of school and began playing piano professionally at age 15. Within a few years, he was one of the most sought after musicians in the United States. A composer of jazz, opera, and popular songs for stage and screen, many of his works are now standards. Gershwin died immediately following brain surgery on July 11, 1937, at the age of 38.
Gershwin was born Jacob Gershowitz on September 26, 1898, in Brooklyn, New York. The son of Russian-Jewish immigrants, Gershwin began his foray into music at age 11 when his family bought a secondhand piano for Gershwin’s older sibling, Ira.
A natural talent, it was Gershwin who took it up and eventually sought out mentors who could enhance his abilities. He eventually began studying with the noted piano teacher Charles Hambitzer, and apparently impressed him; in a letter to his sister, Hambitzer wrote, “I have a new pupil who will make his mark if anybody will. The boy is a genius.”
Throughout his 23-year career, Gershwin would continually seek to expand the breadth of his influences, studying under an incredibly disparate array of teachers, including Henry Cowell, Wallingford Riegger, Edward Kilenyi and Joseph Schillinger.
After dropping out of school at age 15, Gershwin played in several New York nightclubs and began his stint as a “song-plugger” in New York’s Tin Pan Alley.
After three years of pounding out tunes on the piano for demanding customers, he had transformed into a highly skilled and dexterous composer. To earn extra cash, he also worked as a rehearsal pianist for Broadway singers. In 1916, he composed his first published song, “When You Want ‘Em, You Can’t Get ‘Em; When You Have ‘Em, You Don’t Want ‘Em.”
Songs: “Rhapsody in Blue”
From 1920 to 1924, Gershwin composed for an annual production put on by George White. After a show titled “Blue Monday,” the bandleader in the pit, Paul Whiteman, asked Gershwin to create a jazz number that would heighten the genre’s respectability.
Legend has it that Gershwin forgot about the request until he read a newspaper article announcing the fact that Whiteman’s latest concert would feature a new Gershwin composition. Writing at a manic pace in order to meet the deadline, Gershwin composed what is perhaps his best-known work, “Rhapsody in Blue.”
During this time, and in the years that followed, Gershwin wrote numerous songs for stage and screen that quickly became standards, including “Oh, Lady Be Good!” “Someone to Watch over Me,” “Strike Up the Band,” “Embraceable You,” “Let’s Call the Whole Thing Off” and “They Can’t Take That Away from Me.” His lyricist for nearly all of these tunes was his older brother, Ira, whose witty lyrics and inventive wordplay received nearly as much acclaim as Gershwin’s compositions.
In the 1920s, Gershwin spent time in Paris, which inspired his jazz-influenced orchestral composition An American in Paris. Composed in 1928, An American in Paris inspired the 1951 Oscar-winning movie musical by the same name, which was directed by Vincente Minnelli and starred Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron. A Broadway musical based on the film opened in 2014.
In 1935, a decade after composing “Rhapsody in Blue,” Gershwin debuted his most ambitious composition, “Porgy and Bess.” The composition, which was based on the novel “Porgy” by Dubose Heyward, drew from both popular and classical influences. Gershwin called it his “folk opera,” and it is considered to not only be Gershwin’s most complex and best-known works, but also among the most important American musical compositions of the 20th century.
Following his success with “Porgy and Bess,” Gershwin moved to Hollywood and was hired to compose the music for a film titled “Shall We Dance,” starring Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers. It was while working on a follow-up film with Astaire that Gershwin’s life would come to an abrupt end.
In the beginning of 1937, Gershwin began to experience troubling symptoms such as severe headaches and noticing strange smells.
Doctors would eventually discover that he had developed a malignant brain tumor. On July 11, 1937, Gershwin died during surgery to remove the tumor. He was only 38.
Gershwin continues to be one of America’s most iconic composers.
00:06 – January: At the Fireside (A major) 05:13 – February: Carnival (D major) 08:16 – March: Song of the Lark (G minor) 11:00 – April: Snowdrop (B-flat major) 13:42 – May: Starlit Nights (G major) 18:34 – June: Barcarolle (G minor) 23:34 – July: Song of the Reaper (E-flat major) 25:34 – August: Harvest (B minor) 28:48 – September: The Hunt (G major) 31:50 – October: Autumn Song (D minor) 37:00 – November: Troika (E major) 40:02 – December: Christmas (A-flat major)
Search Post by Categories
Subscribe & download the best scores and sheet music transcriptions from our Library.
Tchaikovsky’s “The Seasons”
From mid nineteenth Century to early twentieth Century, Russia’s national piano music developed rapidly, with a unique style from the school, only for half a century, it has established an important position in the International Piano World [ In the Russian classical piano music, piano divertimento “four seasons” is a has a important significance of works, it is completed by the end of the 19th century Russia’s most prominent composer Tchaikovsky.
The whole divertimento is composed of twelve pieces for Piano and respectively in December in a year as the background, in the form of solo piano to describe the four seasons in a year, Russia’s unique scenery of mountains and rivers and people in changes in the natural life of labor scene. Tchaikovsky using a variety of music genres of writing, all kinds of ethnic dance, Russian folk songs, hunting song, Barcarolle, genre can be heard in the “four seasons”.
It can be said that this is a gathering of the Russian national flavor of the piano music works. Touching melody, unique minor style, vivid image of the music, and represents the national temperament of poetry with, the “four seasons” become a classical piano music in a shining star, and it also shows the unique charm of Russian folk music to the people.
Piano set “Four Seasons” content
The piano set “Four Seasons” is as its name. Its content is based on the twelve months of the year. It is a solo piano to express the changes of the four seasons. It vividly depicts the unique scenery of the country and the people of Russia. Living in life, it can be said that “Four Seasons” is a true portrayal of the Russian national image in the form of music. “The Four Seasons” consists of twelve piano pieces, each with a unique title that echoes the twelve months of the year.
They are “January-At the Fire Side”; “Carnival” February-Carnival; “Song of the Lark”; “Snow Snow” April-Snow Drop; “Clean Night” May-White Nights; “Song of the Boat” June-Barcarolle; “Song of the Reapers”; “Harvest” August-Harvest; “Song of the Hunt” September-The Hunting; “Song of Autumn” October-Autumn Song; On the carriage “November-Troika; “Christmas” December-Christmas. Twelve piano pieces are based on the life of the Russians.
In each season’s transformation, they are accompanied by people’s mood and living atmosphere. According to the chronological order of seasons, winter, spring and summer promote people to do various activities, from the quiet of winter to the recovery of spring, from the busy summer to the harvest of autumn, all reflect the season one by one.
Bringing people a life, so we can also call “Four Seasons” a “music of life.”The reason why
“Four Seasons” can stand out in the vast river of music is loved by people because of its special way of creation. In the winter of 1875, Tchaikovsky, who had been thirty-five years old, had created a lot of works and won praises from people. Nikola Mattefevich Bernard, publisher of the St. Petersburg music and art magazine Novelist, wrote to Tchaikovsky saying that he had selected 12 contents from the poems of Russian poets.
The poems that match the seasons of each month are published in the monthly magazines, and at the same time, the twelve piano works to be matched with him, he hopes to complete the creation by Tchaikovsky. After receiving this letter, Tchaikovsky was very excited and immediately wrote back that he was willing to accept the job and would do his best to create it. In this way, the songs and poems were published in magazines every month. Until December of 1796, twelve works composed a beautiful long-form piano set, named “Four Seasons.”
“Four Seasons” performance skills and artistic expression
In short, piano performance is a simple structural analysis of a piano work. According to the basic requirements of the work, the author and the chronological background and style of the work are analyzed. There are also many details to be noted in the performance of “Four Seasons”.
In the Four Seasons, in addition to the quiet and euphemistic melody, there is a very strong and cheerful rhythm, most of which is the dense arrangement of the upper and lower chords. In the second “Carnival”, the seventh song “The Song of the Skull”, the eighth “Harvest”, the ninth “Song of Hunting”, you can hear the chord-like chord playing, give people are an expression of emotion that is extremely cheerful and reveals joy.
In the second round of Carnival’s ABAC’s Rondo, the three A-segments are densely arranged chords to show the joyful scenes of singing and dancing in celebrations. In the ninth song “Hunting”, on the basis of the original song genre, Tchaikovsky chose 4/4 beat instead of the original 6/8 beat, making the rhythm feel cheerful and compact. At the same time, the use of double-point octave chords vividly expresses the tense atmosphere of people hunting. In the performance of these works, these magnificent chords require the player’s full power to play with full spirit, and also need some strength control skills.
In order to play the momentum of the top of the sea, the player first needs to turn the fingers, wrists and arms into a whole, with the wrist as a fixed, with the arm directly to the finger, the height of the force is concentrated, and the keyboard is quickly and forcefully hit. It is required to press the keyboard to the end at the moment of touching the key, and after a strong sound, quickly pull out the keyboard and continue to tap the next set of chords in the same way.
One of the most important components of piano performance is the application of the foot pedal. The use of the foot pedal can make the sound of the key strikes smooth and consistent, and the pedal can control and adjust the volume to a certain extent, even changing the brightness of the sound. Therefore, the pedals are used well, which can add color to the performance, and can also express the emotional expression of the player. For the performance of “Four Seasons”, because of its minor characteristics, it is soft, deep and dim.
First of all, it is necessary to accurately represent the contrast of the sounds played by the piano, so the application of the pedals is essential, and the usage should be alternately using the sustain pedal and the soft pedal. In addition, there is a strong sound method for the use of the sustain pedal, which is to highlight the changes in the mood of the music, and it is necessary to perform with great strength. In fact, the acoustic effect of the piano itself is relatively thin, so in order to satisfy this strong musical effect, it is necessary to render a sound effect to be highlighted for a bright and dim contrast on the sound, so the player needs to be in the foot sound.
The use of the tread is very good to enhance the thickness of the sound and the strong contrast. Every kind of music works has the thoughts and emotions to be expressed and the artistic appeal and expressive power. In this respect, “Four
Seasons” has a very special nature. It is not just a piano piece, it is accurate. Four Seasons is a musical product combined with literary works. We can feel the temperament of a poem from the title of each work. Russia’s most beautiful and beautiful poems and music infiltrate each other. These languages with strong patriotism can not only dominate people’s consciousness, but also subtly dominate people’s life behavior.
Therefore, this melody with poetic temperament can impress the hearts of the people and deeply imprint the feelings of Russia in the minds of every listener.In the fourth song “Song Xuecao”, the poems are written as “light green, fresh pine grass! In the early spring, the snow is squatting beside you. The sadness of the past, only the last few tears are still flowing, coming to Japan. The happiness will bring you novel illusions. The melody of the whole song is deep and quiet, like a crying cry, and it is like singing in a low voice. The picture depicted is a faint wind, and the ice and snow that have not completely melted and the green grass of the newborn sprouts are intertwined with each other.
Just like the people at this time, in the winter and spring, the memories of the past are remembered, and the future is also aspired. Happiness. A good musical piece can not only bring a beautiful melody to the listener, but also bring a kind of philosophical thinking or enlightenment of life outside the melody. In this respect, “Four Seasons” has With its unique expressive power, it not only depicts the landscape of Russia’s mountains and rivers with notes, but also shows people’s attitude towards life in nature.
It can also be said that this is a representative work of the image of the Russian nation. Listening to “Four Seasons”, you can hear the sounds coming from Russia to the distant land. The listening experience in it brings people unlimited imagination and aftertaste. It is the unique artistic charm of “Four Seasons”
Tchaikovsky’s piano suite “The Four Seasons” is one of the most important masterpieces of Russian piano music. This work uses a beautiful and beautiful melody and a musical language like poetry to describe the beautiful scenery of the four seasons, and let us hear the most pristine voice from the Russian nation. Strong national imprints, magnificent mountains and rivers, touching festivals and songs, and a determined attitude towards life are all baptisms that the Four Seasons can give. Tchaikovsky used his wisdom and sweat to create a miracle belonging to Russian national music.
His national music can also be called a model of classical music in the world, and “Four Seasons” will be like vast music. Among the stars, it is the most shining one.
Gayane (Gayaneh or Gayne, the e is pronounced; Armenian: Գայանե) is a four-act ballet with music by Aram Khachaturian. Originally composed in or before 1939, when it was first produced (in Yerevan) as Happiness. Revised in 1941–42 to a libretto by Konstantin Derzhavin and with choreography by Nina Aleksandrovna Anisimova (Derzhavin’s wife),:133–34 the score was revised in 1952 and in 1957, with a new plot. The stage design was by Nathan Altman (scenery) and Tatyana Bruni (costumes).
The first performance took place on 9 December 1942, staged by the Kirov Ballet while in Perm, Russia, during the Second World War evacuation, and was broadcast on the radio.:57 The principal dancers were: Natalia Dudinskaya (Gayane), Nikolai Zubkovsky (Karen), Konstantin Sergeyev (Armen), Tatanya Vecheslova (Nune), and Boris Shavrov (Giko).
The conductor was Pavel Feldt.:59 The most famous parts of the ballet are the “Sabre Dance”, which has been performed by many (including pop artists), and the “Adagio”, which featured prominently in Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Khachaturian’s original Gayane was the story of a young Armenian woman whose patriotic convictions conflict with her personal feelings on discovering her husband’s treason. In later years the plot was modified several times, the resultant story emphasizing romance over nationalistic zeal.
The ballet, based on an earlier ballet composed in 1939 by Khachaturian called Happiness,:127 was created when the Kirov ballet was in Perm. Khachaturian started composing the score in autumn 1941 and the ballet was first mounted on 3 December 1942 on the small stage of the Perm state theatre.
Despite these limitations, the effect was profound; in effect, the message was that the company was continuing to exist and to produce new ballets, despite the very hard times. Anisimova invited different dancers to participate in her ballet, dancers who happened to be in the city at that time; there was a sense of camaraderie and combined effort which suited the positive feeling of the ballet itself. The composition, the music, the dancing, all together created something which, regardless of the weaknesses in the libretto, expressed the triumph of dancing and its many different possibilities.
and subscribe to our social channels for news and music updates:
Antonio Vivaldi was born in Venice, Italy, on March 4, 1678. His first music teacher was his father, Giovanni Battista Vivaldi. The elder Vivaldi was a well-respected violinist, employed at the church of St. Mark’s. It is possible, though not proved, that as a boy Antonio also studied with the composer Giovanni Legrenzi (1626–1690).
Antonio was trained for a clerical (religious service) as well as a musical life. After going through the various introductory stages, he was ordained (authorized) a priest in March 1703. His active career, however, was devoted to music. In the autumn of 1703 he was appointed as a violin teacher at the Ospitale della Pieta in Venice. A few years later he was made conductor of the orchestra at the same institution. Under Vivaldi’s direction, this orchestra gave many brilliant concerts and achieved an international reputation.
Vivaldi remained at the Pietà until 1740. But his long years there were broken by the numerous trips he took, for professional purposes, to Italian and foreign cities. He went, among other places, to Vienna, Italy, from 1729 to 1730 and to Amsterdam, Netherlands, from 1737 to 1738. Within Italy, he traveled to various cities to direct performances of his operas. He left Venice for the last time in 1740. He died in Vienna on July 26 or 27, 1741.
Vivaldi’s influence on the development of Baroque music was immense. He ignited transformations in music for the church, the opera house and the concert hall. But his most important achievement was in his music for strings. He introduced a range of new styles and techniques to string playing and consolidated one of its most important genres, the concerto. Vivaldi’s concertos became a model for his contemporaries, and the form was soon one of the most important in eighteenth century Europe.
Vivaldi played the violin from an early age, probably taking lessons with his father. He trained for the priesthood and was ordained in 1703. His red hair earned him the nickname ‘il prete rosso’ (the red priest). In the same year as his ordination, he was appointed to the Ospedale della Pietà, a Venetian convent for orphaned or illegitimate girls. He taught the violin there, organised services with music, composed and gave concerts. Publications of his works began appearing in 1705: trio sonatas, violin sonatas and concerto sets. Prior to these, he had disseminated a number of concertos in manuscript form. He also wrote two oratorios for the Pietà, the most significant being Juditha triumphans (1716).
Opera became an increasingly important part of Vivaldi’s output in the second decade of the 18th century. His first opera, Ottone in villa, was premiered in Vicenza in 1713. He also wrote for theatres in Venice and Mantua, where the Habsburg governor, Prince Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt, was a famous music lover. Following the success of Vivaldi’s opera Armida al campo d’Egitto there, the prince appointed Vivaldi as maestro di cappella da camera. Vivaldi remained in Mantua for two years from 1718, writing cantatas and serenatas for the court.
Rome was Vivaldi’s main base from 1720. Here he composed more operas under the patronage of Cardinal Ottoboni. Further opera work took him back to Venice, where he was involved with the Teatro San Angelo from 1726 to 1728. During his travels, Vivaldi retained a position with the Pietà, regularly providing the school with concertos. From 1730, he visited Vienna and Prague, trying with mixed success to stage his operas in those cities. He hoped to become composer to the Imperial court in Vienna. But the death of Emperor Charles VI in 1740 left him without even a prospective patron.
Vivaldi died in poverty the following year. Among the works he left, the most significant are his concertos, about 500 in all. Around half of these are for solo violin and strings. About forty are for two soloists, and thirty for three or more. The solo instruments in these categories include bassoon, cello, oboe, flute, viola d’amore, recorder, trumpet and mandolin. Vivaldi had injected the concerto form with a remarkable variety of structure, originality of scoring and imagination of conception. His standard model was the three movement design, with two allegros framing a slow movement in the same, or a closely related, key. These concertos alone show him to be one of the most important composers of the late Baroque.
His innovations here anticipate the early Classical style. He has even been credited as a precursor of musical Romanticism. The pictorial dimensions of Vivaldi’s concertos, most notably Le quattro stagioni (The Four Seasons) and La Caccia, RV362, anticipate 19th-century developments. So too do his unusual combinations of instruments, his chromaticism and his use of special effects such as scordatura (in RV348 and RV391). He also composed around 90 sonatas, which maintain traditional formal designs and stylistic traits. The Trio Sonatas op.1 and op. 5 are modelled after those of Corelli and are in a chamber music style. In other sonatas, the previously distinct genres of church and chamber music are subtly merged.
Of the forty or so operas Vivaldi composed, only twenty-one have survived, and many of these are incomplete. Vivaldi’s operas are among the few from the period to use obbligato instruments in arias, sometimes borrowing arias from other composers such as Handel and Pergolesi. Sacred genres are also opened up to external influences in his work. Musical ideas from operatic and orchestral music make regular appearances. Most of his cantatas are for solo voice (soprano or alto) and continuo, based on the model established by composer Alessandro Scarlatti. Vivaldi’s serenatas, composed to celebrate a particular event or honour a special person, are more expansive works. Among other prominent sacred pieces are his Gloria, RV589, and Magnificat, RV611.
Vivaldi’s music suffered a century of neglect after his death. It was rediscovered thanks to a resurgence of interest in the music of JS Bach. While preparing a complete edition of Bach’s music in the nineteenth century, scholars came across his transcriptions of ten of Vivaldi’s concertos. It is ironic that Vivaldi’s ‘resurrection’ came about via a composer on whom he had been a crucial influence.