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A Spanish Portrait: Llobet, Tárrega, Granados, Albeniz

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Schumann: Complete Music for Viola and Piano

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Masterclass nº3 Lang Lang – No 23 – Barenboim on Beethoven

Subtitles in Spanish. Subtítulos en Español.

Masterclass nº3 Lang Lang. Download this sheet music and many more from our Library.

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Discover Chopin: His Great Piano Music (with sheet music)

This album contains piano music by Chopin, presented by Piano Classics, a label of Brilliant Classics.

Composer: Frédéric Chopin Artist: Hubert Rutkowski (piano). Get Chopin’s sheet music in our Library.

The first concert Frédéric Chopin gave in Paris (the city which would be his new home town) was in 1832 playing a new Pleyel piano. The press, in the person of the influential Francois-Joseph Fétis, was enthousiastic, he praised the “spiritualized melodies, the fanciful landscapes and uniqueness in all”. Chopin himself was in love with the instrument, with “the lightness of touch and the songful singsong tone”. From then on his instrument of preference would be Pleyel. In his search for the ideal Chopin tone pianist Hubert Rutkowski studies the writings and recordings of the students of Mikuli, who himself was a student of Chopin. Notably Moritz Rosenthal and Raul Koczalski are the greatest inspirations, in their refined artistic ease, fanciful rubato and a perfect legato. Hubert Rutkowski chose a representative program, in which all facets of the Pleyel instrument and Chopin’s unique pianism are presented: Ballade, Scherzo, Mazurkas, Nocturnes, Polonaise, Etude, Waltz, Fantaisie-Impromptu. He plays a magnificent Pleyel instrument from 1847. He is the winner of the International Chopin Piano Competition in Hannover in 2007.

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0:00:00 Ballade No. 1 in G Minor, Op. 23 0:09:06 Mazurka No. 2 in C Major, Op. 24 0:11:56 Étude No. 5 in G-Flat Major, Op. 10 0:13:49 Nocturne No. 2 in F-Sharp Minor, Op. 48 0:21:22 Fantaisie-Impromptu in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 66 0:26:55 Mazurka No. 4 in B-Flat Minor, Op. 24 0:31:58 Scherzo in B Minor, Op. 20 0:42:39 Mazurka No. 1 in B-Flat Major, Op. 7 0:45:10 Nocturne No. 1 in D-Flat Major, Op. 27 0:51:08 Polonaise in B-Flat Major, Op. 71 0:58:24 Mazurka No. 2 in A Minor, Op. 68 1:01:50 Waltz No. 1 in D-Flat Major, Op. 64

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Pleyel et Cie., pianos

Pleyel et Cie (“Pleyel and Company”) was a French piano manufacturing firm founded by the composer Ignace Pleyel in 1807. In 1815, Pleyel’s son Camille joined him as a business partner. The firm provided pianos to Frédéric Chopin, and also ran a concert hall, the Salle Pleyel, where Chopin performed his first – and last – Paris concerts. Pleyel’s major contribution to piano development was the first use of a metal frame in a piano. Pleyel pianos were the choice of composers such as Debussy, Saint-Saëns, Ravel, de Falla and Stravinsky and of pianists and teachers Alfred Cortot, Philip Manuel and Gavin Williamson. Nineteenth-century musicians involved in the company’s management included Joseph O’Kelly and Georges Pfeiffer.

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Beethoven Für Elise Valentina Lisitsa Seoul Philharmonic with sheet music

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Beethoven Für Elise Valentina Lisitsa Seoul Philharmonic. An amazing performance! Get this sheet music and many more in our (your) Library.

Valentina Lisitsa (born 25 March 1973) is a Ukrainian pianist. She previously resided in North Carolina before moving to France, and then to Italy. She now shares her time between Moscow and Rome.

Lisitsa is among the most frequently viewed pianists on YouTube – particularly her renderings of Romantic era virtuoso piano composers, including Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin and Sergei Rachmaninoff. Lisitsa independently launched her career on social media, without initially signing with a tour promoter or record company.

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Grieg: Piano Works Vol.1

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Tracklist: 00:00:00 Book I Op.12: Arietta 00:01:30 Book I Op.12: Waltz 00:02:59 Book I Op.12: Watchman’s Song 00:05:46 Book I Op.12: Fairy Dance 00:06:39 Book I Op.12: Folk Melody 00:08:02 Book I Op.12: Norwegian Melody 00:08:57 Book I Op.12: Albumleaf 00:10:17 Book I Op.12: National Song 00:11:38 Book II Op.38: Berceuse 00:13:53 Book II Op.38: Folk Melody 00:15:18 Book II Op.38: Melody 00:16:18 Book II Op.38: Norwegian Dance 00:17:43 Book II Op.38: Spring Dance 00:19:07 Book II Op.38: Elegy 00:21:11 Book II Op.38: Waltz 00:22:09 Book II Op.38: Canon 00:26:10 Book III Op.43: Butterfly 00:27:45 Book III Op.43: Solitary Traveller 00:29:24 Book III Op.43: In My Native Country 00:31:10 Book III Op.43: Little Bird 00:33:03 Book III Op.43: Erotikon 00:35:20 Book III Op.43: To Spring 00:37:48 Book IV Op.47: Valse-Impromptu 00:40:28 Book IV Op.47: Album Leaf 00:43:59 Book IV Op.47: Melody 00:47:14 Book IV Op.47: Norwegian Dance 00:48:30 Book IV Op.47: Melancholy 00:51:23 Book IV Op.47: Spring Dance 00:52:41 Book V Op.54: Shepherd Boy 00:55:38 Book V Op.54: Norwegian March 00:59:33 Book V Op.54: March of the Dwarfs 01:03:00 Book V Op.54: Notturno 01:05:52 Book V Op.54: Scherzo 01:08:54 Book V Op.54: Bell-ringing 01:12:16 Book VI Op.57: Vanished Days 01:15:42 Book VI Op.57: Gade 01:20:26 Book VI Op.57: Illusion 01:24:19 Book VI Op.57: Secret 01:31:04 Book VI Op.57: She Dances 01:34:07 Book VI Op.57: Homesickness 01:37:12 Book VII Op.62: Sylph 01:38:43 Book VII Op.62: Gratitude 01:42:47 Book VII Op.62: French Serenade 01:45:03 Book VII Op.62: Little Brook 01:46:51 Book VII Op.62: Phantom 01:49:23 Book VII Op.62: Homeward 01:52:11 Book VIII Op.65: From Early Years 01:56:51 Book VIII Op.65: Peasant’s Song 01:58:24 Book VIII Op.65: Melancholy 02:01:52 Book VIII Op.65: Salon 02:04:09 Book VIII Op.65: Ballad 02:06:53 Book VIII Op.65: Wedding Day at Troldhaugen 02:13:10 Book IX Op.68: Sailor’s Song 02:15:06 Book IX Op.68: Grandmother’s Minuet 02:17:12 Book IX Op.68: At Your Feet 02:20:17 Book IX Op.68: Evening in the Mountains 02:22:51 Book IX Op.68: At the Cradle 02:25:14 Book IX Op.68: Valse mélancolique 02:29:08 Book X Op.71: Once Upon a Time 02:33:01 Book X Op.71: Summer’s Eve 02:35:23 Book X Op.71: Puck 02:37:10 Book X Op.71: Peace of the Woods 02:42:43 Book X Op.71: Norwegian Dance 02:45:30 Book X Op.71: Gone 02:47:26 Book X Op.71: Remembrances 02:49:18 Piano Sontana In E Minor Op.7: I. Allegro moderato 02:53:33 Piano Sontana In E Minor Op.7: II. Andante molto 02:57:25 Piano Sontana In E Minor Op.7: III. Alla Menuetto, ma poco più lento 03:00:22 Piano Sontana In E Minor Op.7: IV. Finale: Molto allegro 03:07:41 Scenes From Folk Life Op.19: In the Mountains 03:12:49 Scenes From Folk Life Op.19: Bridal Procession 03:16:29 Scenes From Folk Life Op.19: Carnival Scene 03:23:21 Scenes From Folk Life Op.19: Ballade in G Minor Op.24 03:41:47 Suite ‘From Holberg’s Time’: I. Praeludium 03:44:24 Suite ‘From Holberg’s Time’: II. Sarabande 03:47:51 Suite ‘From Holberg’s Time’: III. Gavotte 03:50:57 Suite ‘From Holberg’s Time’: IV. Air 03:57:59 Suite ‘From Holberg’s Time’: V. Rigaudon

Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist. He is widely considered one of the leading Romantic era composers, and his music is part of the standard classical repertoire worldwide. His use and development of Norwegian folk music in his own compositions brought the music of Norway to international consciousness, as well as helping to develop a national identity, much as Jean Sibelius did in Finland and Bedřich Smetana did in Bohemia.

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Grieg is the most celebrated person from the city of Bergen, with numerous statues depicting his image, and many cultural entities named after him: the city’s largest concert building (Grieg Hall), its most advanced music school (Grieg Academy) and its professional choir (Edvard Grieg Kor). The Edvard Grieg Museum at Grieg’s former home, Troldhaugen, is dedicated to his legacy.

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Brahms: Piano Sonatas

Brahms: Piano Sonatas (with sheet music)

Lukas Geniušas, piano

00:00:00 Piano Sonata No. 1 in C Major, Op. 1: I. Allegro 00:07:50 Piano Sonata No. 1 in C Major, Op. 1: II. Andante 00:13:21 Piano Sonata No. 1 in C Major, Op. 1: III. Scherzo 00:18:51 Piano Sonata No. 1 in C Major, Op. 1: IV. Allegro con fuoco

Alan Weiss, piano

00:25:15 Piano Sonata No. 2 in F sharp minor Op. 2: I. Allegro ma non troppo, ma energico 00:31:26 Piano Sonata No. 2 in F sharp minor Op. 2: II. Andante con espressione 00:36:38 Piano Sonata No. 2 in F sharp minor Op. 2 III. Scherzo:Allegro 00:40:35 Piano Sonata No. 2 in F sharp minor Op. 2: IV. Finale: Introduzione – Allegro non troppo e rubato

Philipp Kopachevsky, piano

00:51:53 Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, Op. 5: I. Allegro maestoso 01:01:44 Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, Op. 5: II. Andante espressivo 01:12:39 Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, Op. 5: III. Scherzo, allegro energico 01:17:28 Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, Op. 5: IV. Intermezzo, andante molto 01:21:13 Piano Sonata No. 3 in F Minor, Op. 5: V. Finale, allegro moderato ma rubato

Johannes Brahms life

Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833–3 April 1897) was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna. His reputation and status as a composer are such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the “Three Bs” of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow.

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Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano, organ, and voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works. He worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann and the violinist Joseph Joachim (the three were close friends). Many of his works have become staples of the modern concert repertoire. An uncompromising perfectionist, Brahms destroyed some of his works and left others unpublished.

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Brahms has been considered, by his contemporaries and by later writers, as both a traditionalist and an innovator. His music is firmly rooted in the structures and compositional techniques of the Classical masters. While many contemporaries found his music too academic, his contribution and craftsmanship have been admired by subsequent figures as diverse as Arnold Schoenberg and Edward Elgar. The diligent, highly constructed nature of Brahms’s works was a starting point and an inspiration for a generation of composers. Embedded within his meticulous structures, however, are deeply romantic motifs.

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Brahms wrote a number of major works for orchestra, including two Serenades, four symphonies, two piano concertos (No. 1 in D minor; No. 2 in B-flat major), a Violin Concerto, a Double Concerto for violin and cello, and two companion orchestral overtures, the Academic Festival Overture and the Tragic Overture.

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His large choral work A German Requiem is not a setting of the liturgical Missa pro defunctis but a setting of texts which Brahms selected from the Luther Bible. The work was composed in three major periods of his life. An early version of the second movement was first composed in 1854, not long after Robert Schumann’s attempted suicide, and this was later used in his first piano concerto. The majority of the Requiem was composed after his mother’s death in 1865. The fifth movement was added after the official premiere in 1868, and the work was published in 1869.

His works in variation form include, among others, the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel and the Paganini Variations, both for solo piano, and the Variations on a Theme by Haydn (now sometimes called the Saint Anthony Variations) in versions for two pianos and for orchestra. The final movement of the Fourth Symphony, Op. 98, is formally a passacaglia.

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His chamber works include three string quartets, two string quintets, two string sextets, a clarinet quintet, a clarinet trio, a horn trio, a piano quintet, three piano quartets, and four piano trios (the fourth being published posthumously). He composed several instrumental sonatas with piano, including three for violin, two for cello, and two for clarinet (which were subsequently arranged for viola by the composer). His solo piano works range from his early piano sonatas and ballades to his late sets of character pieces. Brahms was a significant Lieder composer, who wrote over 200 of them. His chorale preludes for organ, Op. 122, which he wrote shortly before his death, have become an important part of the organ repertoire. They were published posthumously in 1902. The last of this set is a setting of the chorale, “O Welt ich muss dich lassen”, “O world I now must leave thee” and were the last notes he wrote.

Brahms was an extreme perfectionist. He destroyed many early works – including a violin sonata he had performed with Reményi and violinist Ferdinand David – and once claimed to have destroyed 20 string quartets before he issued his official First in 1873. Over the course of several years, he changed an original project for a symphony in D minor into his first piano concerto. In another instance of devotion to detail, he laboured over the official First Symphony for almost fifteen years, from about 1861 to 1876. Even after its first few performances, Brahms destroyed the original slow movement and substituted another before the score was published.

Another factor that contributed to his perfectionism was Schumann’s early enthusiasm, which Brahms was determined to live up to.

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Brahms strongly preferred writing absolute music that does not refer to an explicit scene or narrative, and he never wrote an opera or a symphonic poem.

Brahms looked both backward and forward; his output was often bold in its exploration of harmony and rhythm. As a result, he was an influence on composers of both conservative and modernist tendencies. Within his lifetime, his idiom left an imprint on several composers within his personal circle, who strongly admired his music, such as Heinrich von Herzogenberg, Robert Fuchs, and Julius Röntgen, as well as on Gustav Jenner, who was his only formal composition pupil. Antonín Dvořák, who received substantial assistance from Brahms, deeply admired his music and was influenced by it in several works, such as the Symphony No. 7 in D minor and the F minor Piano Trio. Features of the “Brahms style” were absorbed in a more complex synthesis with other contemporary (chiefly Wagnerian) trends by Hans Rott, Wilhelm Berger, Max Reger and Franz Schmidt, whereas the British composers Hubert Parry and Edward Elgar and the Swede Wilhelm Stenhammar all testified to learning much from Brahms. As Elgar said, “I look at the Third Symphony of Brahms, and I feel like a pygmy.”

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Ferruccio Busoni‘s early music shows much Brahmsian influence, and Brahms took an interest in him, though Busoni later tended to disparage Brahms. Towards the end of his life, Brahms offered substantial encouragement to Ernő Dohnányi and to Alexander von Zemlinsky. Their early chamber works (and those of Béla Bartók, who was friendly with Dohnányi) show a thoroughgoing absorption of the Brahmsian idiom. Zemlinsky, moreover, was in turn the teacher of Arnold Schoenberg, and Brahms was apparently impressed by drafts of two movements of Schoenberg’s early Quartet in D major which Zemlinsky showed him in 1897. In 1933, Schoenberg wrote an essay “Brahms the Progressive” (re-written 1947), which drew attention to his fondness for motivic saturation and irregularities of rhythm and phrase; in his last book (Structural Functions of Harmony, 1948), he analysed Brahms’s “enriched harmony” and exploration of remote tonal regions. These efforts paved the way for a re-evaluation of his reputation in the 20th century. Schoenberg went so far as to orchestrate one of Brahms’s piano quartets. Schoenberg’s pupil Anton Webern, in his 1933 lectures, posthumously published under the title The Path to the New Music, claimed Brahms as one who had anticipated the developments of the Second Viennese School, and Webern’s own Op. 1, an orchestral passacaglia, is clearly in part a homage to, and development of, the variation techniques of the passacaglia-finale of Brahms’s Fourth Symphony. Ann Scott has shown how Brahms anticipated the procedures of the serialists by redistributing melodic fragments between instruments, as in the first movement of the Clarinet Sonata, Op.120 No. 2.

Brahms was honoured in the German hall of fame, the Walhalla memorial. On 14 September 2000, he was introduced there as the 126th “rühmlich ausgezeichneter Teutscher” and 13th composer among them, with a bust by sculptor Milan Knobloch.

List of works by Brahms

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J.S. Bach: French Suites

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The title is misleading: the English Suites are more ‘French’ in character than the French Suites, which are more characteristic of the Italian style. ‘By design the composer is here less learned than in his other suites,’ remarked one early biographer, ‘and has mostly used a pleasing, more predominant melody.’ Just so, and the same is true of the pair of suites BWV 818 and 819 which fall outside the collection but belong with it in terms of style. To all of them Yuan Sheng brings considered tempi and precise articulation in the mould of Tureck. To Bach at his most uncomplicated, Sheng brings the virtues of simplicity and clarity. Again Yuan Sheng draws the listener into his highly intelligent musical discourse, vibrant and moving, speaking through the medium of a modern Steinway piano. Composer: Johann Sebastian Bach Artist: Yuan Sheng (piano).

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“China’s premier interpreter of Bach”, is what International Piano Magazine called Yuan Sheng. A pupil of Solomon Mikowsky (Manhattan School of Music) and notably Rosalyn Tureck, Yuan Sheng extensively studied the performance practice of Baroque music. Equally at home at the harpsichord he has an instinctive feeling for the possibilities, sonorities and touch of the instrument at hand, so that “the listener might easily have imagined the composer at the keyboard” (Boston Intelligencer).

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Johann Sebastian Bach (31 March 1685 – 28 July 1750) was a German composer and musician of the Baroque period. He is known for instrumental compositions such as the Brandenburg Concertos and the Goldberg Variations, and for vocal music such as the St Matthew Passion and the Mass in B minor. Since the 19th-century Bach Revival he has been generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.

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The Bach family already counted several composers when Johann Sebastian was born as the last child of a city musician in Eisenach. After being orphaned at age 10, he lived for five years with his eldest brother Johann Christoph, after which he continued his musical formation in Lüneburg. From 1703 he was back in Thuringia, working as a musician for Protestant churches in Arnstadt and Mühlhausen and, for longer stretches of time, at courts in Weimar, where he expanded his organ repertory, and Köthen, where he was mostly engaged with chamber music. From 1723 he was employed as Thomaskantor (cantor at St. Thomas) in Leipzig. He composed music for the principal Lutheran churches of the city, and for its university’s student ensemble Collegium Musicum. From 1726 he published some of his keyboard and organ music. In Leipzig, as had happened during some of his earlier positions, he had difficult relations with his employer, a situation that was little remedied when he was granted the title of court composer by his sovereign, Augustus, Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, in 1736. In the last decades of his life he reworked and extended many of his earlier compositions. He died of complications after eye surgery in 1750 at the age of 65.

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Bach enriched established German styles through his mastery of counterpoint, harmonic and motivic organisation, and his adaptation of rhythms, forms, and textures from abroad, particularly from Italy and France. Bach’s compositions include hundreds of cantatas, both sacred and secular. He composed Latin church music, Passions, oratorios, and motets. He often adopted Lutheran hymns, not only in his larger vocal works, but for instance also in his four-part chorales and his sacred songs. He wrote extensively for organ and for other keyboard instruments. He composed concertos, for instance for violin and for harpsichord, and suites, as chamber music as well as for orchestra. Many of his works employ the genres of canon and fugue.

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Throughout the 18th century Bach was primarily valued as an organist, while his keyboard music, such as The Well-Tempered Clavier, was appreciated for its didactic qualities. The 19th century saw the publication of some major Bach biographies, and by the end of that century all of his known music had been printed. Dissemination of scholarship on the composer continued through periodicals (and later also websites) exclusively devoted to him, and other publications such as the Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis (BWV, a numbered catalogue of his works) and new critical editions of his compositions. His music was further popularised through a multitude of arrangements, including, for instance, the Air on the G String, and of recordings, such as three different box sets with complete performances of the composer’s oeuvre marking the 250th anniversary of his death.

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Claude Debussy Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli / Préludes Volume 1

Claude Debussy est un compositeur français né le 22 août 1862 à Saint-Germain-en-Laye et mort le 25 mars 1918 à Paris. Vous pouvez avoir ses partitions dans notre Bibliothèque.

En posant en 1894 avec Prélude à l’Après-midi d’un faune le premier jalon de la musique moderne, Debussy place d’emblée son œuvre sous le sceau de l’avant-garde musicale. Il est brièvement wagnérien en 1889, puis anticonformiste le reste de sa vie, en rejetant tous les académismes esthétiques. Avec La Mer, il renouvelle la forme symphonique ; avec Jeux, il inscrit la musique pour ballet dans un modernisme prophétique ; avec Pelléas et Mélisande, l’opéra français sort des ornières de la tradition du drame lyrique, tandis qu’il confère à la musique de chambre, avec son quatuor à cordes et son trio, des accents impressionnistes inspirés.

Une part importante de son œuvre est pour le piano (la plus vaste de la musique française avec celle de Gabriel Fauré) et utilise une palette sonore particulièrement riche et évocatrice.

Claude Debussy laisse l’image d’un créateur original et profond d’une musique où souffle le vent de la liberté. Son impact sera décisif dans l’histoire de la musique. Pour André Boucourechliev, il incarnerait la véritable révolution musicale du vingtième siècle.

Plus encore que les romantiques, Debussy marque une rupture avec la forme classique, bien que la perfection formelle et le sens de l’unité qui structurent ses compositions en fassent, d’une certaine manière, un « classique ». Sa musique se distingue en effet par une architecture secrète, mais souveraine : inspirée parfois des musiques orientales, elle anticipe tantôt le jazz, tantôt la musique contemporaine, mais n’exprime souvent que son propre mystère. Les thèmes sont épars, disséminés, les recherches harmoniques audacieuses, les nuances infinies et les rythmes complexes. Le discours musical debussyste donne globalement l’impression d’être à la fois logique et imprévisible et d’obéir à une rationalité imparable, mais inconnue, à une « arithmétique occulte ». Ses œuvres sont de prime abord sensorielles, elles visent à éveiller chez l’auditeur des sensations particulières en traduisant en musique des images et des impressions précises. Les titres évocateurs de ses pièces illustrent d’ailleurs assez bien cette ambition, même s’ils ne sont qu’indicatifs et ne constituent pas de « programme » : Des pas sur la neige, La Fille aux cheveux de lin, Ce qu’a vu le vent d’Ouest, La Cathédrale engloutie, etc. (Préludes). Il substitue de cette manière les couleurs aux notes (et préfigure ainsi ce kaléidoscope de timbres que la Seconde école de Vienne appellera klangfarbenmelodie) : il n’est qu’à écouter Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli, Walter Gieseking ou Claudio Arrau pour accéder à cette synesthésie. Ainsi, même s’il est difficile de le rattacher à un courant artistique, on le qualifie généralement d’« impressionniste », étiquette qu’il n’a lui-même jamais revendiquée et qui est plutôt abandonnée aujourd’hui.

Ces Préludes, « avant-propos éternel d’un propos qui jamais n’adviendra » (Vladimir Jankélévitch), illustrent plutôt une conception nouvelle du temps et de l’espace musical, qui transcende les catégories esthétiques connues jusqu’alors, et s’affranchit précocement aussi bien du post-romantisme que d’un impressionnisme strictement décoratif. Alberto Savinio moquera Debussy « et son oreille molle d’animal marin », mais c’est bien une construction forte et précise qui informe les œuvres de ce compositeur, dont la pensée musicale intempestive constitue, pour reprendre une formule de Friedrich Nietzsche, « un événement européen ». La mobilité et l’imprévisibilité permanentes du discours musical sont des caractéristiques essentielles de l’esthétique debussyste, et non le signe d’un quelconque vice de forme : « à la limite tout est transition », écrit à ce propos Harry Halbreich. On pourrait dès lors rattacher cette révolution artistique à une énergie spirituelle nouvelle : une fragmentation, une dissolution et une dispersion des données de la conscience, toutes choses qui nous dirigeraient vers l’idée bergsonienne d’une hétérogénéité du temps à l’espace, dont l’œuvre de Proust est, en littérature, l’exemple le plus frappant (Richard Wagner faisait déjà dire à Parsifal : « Ici, le temps devient espace »). Sans aller jusqu’à établir des parallèles historiques (la modernité et sa marche accélérée), ou scientifiques (la physique quantique et sa liquidation de la temporalité linéaire), il est certain que les forces d’apesanteur et de déracinement qui singularisent la musique de Debussy, et qu’on pourrait croire produites par une évaporation et une relativisation des structures architectoniques de la partition, sont en réalité partie intégrante de l’économie générale de son œuvre, et contribuent à l’expression d’une vision du monde dont la portée est d’une profondeur incommensurable à la seule analyse esthétique. Si bien que la musique de Debussy est tout sauf atmosphérique, et porte en elle une force d’expression et une forme de beauté radicalement neuves et singulièrement puissantes. Comme Nietzsche disait que « les Grecs étaient superficiels par profondeur », l’œuvre de Debussy est légère par gravité : on peut la taxer d’impressionniste, de symboliste, de fauviste ou de pointilliste, pourvu qu’on n’entende pas par là une configuration arbitraire des formes, mais une voie d’accès à l’être même des choses et comme la possibilité d’ouverture d’une porte étroite sur la vérité du monde. Le style, disait aussi Marcel Proust, est affaire non de technique, mais de vision.

De caractère non conformiste et créateur iconoclaste, Debussy n’aura ainsi pas eu de réels devanciers ni de successeurs proclamés, mais il doit beaucoup à la musique de Wagner qu’il raillait constamment, et tout un pan de la musique du XXe siècle lui est à son tour redevable. Son innovation principale réside dans le refus du développement et de la forme-sonate de type A-B-A’ qui malgré les variations et les innovations que lui auront apportées entre autres Beethoven, Brahms et Bruckner, contraint le compositeur à avancer selon un schéma fixe et prédéfini (« Au secours ! Il va développer ! », est le cri d’alarme parfois attribué au Debussy auditeur de concert). Mais, du même coup, Debussy affronte plus qu’aucun autre la liberté absolue du créateur fixant lui-même les règles de l’œuvre qu’il invente. C’est en cela qu’il appartient indéniablement à ce XXe siècle qui commence avec lui plus qu’avec Wagner, dont le Tristan et Isolde était selon ses propres mots « un beau coucher de soleil que l’on a pris pour une aurore ». Il est cependant remarquable que Debussy, fidèle comme Baudelaire « aux nuages qui passent, aux merveilleux nuages » (Nocturnes), n’adopte jamais de formules figées ou de système de composition arbitraire, comme ce sera par ailleurs le cas dans le sérialisme de Schoenberg, tout en construisant des œuvres d’une extraordinaire cohérence interne (Jeux, son œuvre la plus audacieuse est le point d’aboutissement de cette révolution formelle). Cette esthétique est si novatrice qu’elle suscite des controverses entre debussystes et anti-debussystes.

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Il aura aussi trouvé dans une attention scrupuleuse aux mille échos physiques et poétiques des sonorités et dans la transgression de la rhétorique musicale traditionnelle, une expressivité unique et une forme de sensualité qui ne débouchent sur aucun hermétisme ni aucun intellectualisme (Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune). Alors qu’auparavant la mélodie et le déroulement « horizontal » de la musique primaient sur tout autre paramètre, Debussy accorde au timbre de chaque instrument un rôle dramatique en soi : avec lui, le son lui-même prend du sens, et non plus seulement l’architecture globale de l’œuvre. Cette modification constitue une révolution dans l’attitude mentale européenne qui identifie généralement la beauté à l’élaboration raisonnée d’un travail construit, d’où toute improvisation est impitoyablement bannie. Et si la musique de Debussy est tout sauf improvisée, elle peut néanmoins donner ce sentiment jusque dans ses œuvres les plus savantes, comme les Études, où l’exploration systématique de la technique pianistique se conjugue pourtant magiquement au sentiment de la plus totale liberté. Dans son unique opéra achevé, Pelléas et Mélisande, peut-être son chef-d’œuvre, il parvient à exprimer l’inexprimable avec des « correspondances mystérieuses entre la Nature et l’Imagination »et créer un climat « d’inquiétante étrangeté » à travers un lyrisme réinventé (taxé parfois d’anti-lyrisme) et une temporalité fondée sur le vécu intérieur de la conscience, sans que l’on puisse pour autant parler de « drame psychologique » : comme l’écrit Jerry Fodor, « c’est un opéra dans lequel tout est mystérieux parce que rien n’est caché ».

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Son génie de l’orchestration et son attention aiguë aux couleurs instrumentales font de Debussy le digne héritier de Berlioz et l’égal au moins de son contemporain Ravel. Mais surtout, son art de l’instantané qui « fixe des vertiges » (Images pour orchestre) et s’affranchit de la logique rationnelle au profit d’un « dérèglement de tous les sens » (L’Isle joyeuse), jusqu’à adopter le point de vue de l’enfant « amoureux de cartes et d’estampes » (Estampes), font de lui un frère spirituel de Baudelaire et de Rimbaud, mais aussi de Verlaine : « De la musique avant toute chose/Et pour cela préfère l’Impair/Plus vague et plus soluble dans l’air,/Sans rien en lui qui pèse ou qui pose. » La rupture que Debussy instaure volontairement entre le goût classique, dont musiciens et mélomanes possèdent les codes, et la musique nouvelle qu’il défend, est l’une des racines du divorce partiel entre le public et la musique contemporaine. D’une audace imprévisible, mais d’une sûreté de goût absolue, harmoniste inclassable et dramaturge subtil, Debussy est comme Rameau auquel il a rendu hommage dans ses Images pour piano, un compositeur d’esprit très français (il signait d’ailleurs certaines de ses partitions Claude de France). Mais grâce à la révolution qu’il opère dans l’histoire de la musique, à travers les ponts qu’il lance en direction des autres arts et des multiples sensations qu’ils éveillent (les sons et les parfums, les mots et les couleurs), il fait accéder sans doute mieux qu’aucun autre la musique française à l’universalité : celle du corps, de la nature et de l’espace. À ce titre, le chef d’orchestre Sergiu Celibidache qui, par le recours à la phénoménologie de la musique, a su restituer les sonorités de l’orchestre telles qu’elles nous parviennent, indépendamment des cadres d’analyse hérités et des formules apprises, a contribué peut-être mieux que quiconque à dévoiler la puissance émotionnelle brute que contiennent les plus belles pages de Debussy (dont La Mer, « Bible musicale française » selon lui)35. Messiaen, Takemitsu, Dutilleux et de nombreuses figures incontournables de la musique du XXe siècle reconnurent en Debussy si ce n’est leur maître commun, du moins celui grâce auquel la musique occidentale tout entière pouvait connaître une nouvelle et magistrale Renaissance.

Best Classical Music

Frederic Mompou – El Pont de Montjuïc (piano with sheet music)

Frederic Mompou i Dencausse (Barcelona, 16 d’abril de 1893 – 30 de juny de 1987) fou un compositor català, conegut sobretot per les seves peces per a piano sol. Les seves partitures estan disponibles a la nostra biblioteca online.

Frederic Mompou i Dencausse, conocido como Federico Mompou (Barcelona, 16 de abril de 1893-30 de junio de 1987), fue un compositor catalán, famoso principalmente por sus obras para piano solo. Sus partituras estan disponibles en nuestra biblioteca online.

Frederic Mompou Dencausse  16 April 1893 – 30 June 1987) was a Catalan composer and pianist. He is remembered for his solo piano music and, to a degree, his songs. His sheet music is available in our online Library.

Mompou is best known as a miniaturist, writing short, relatively improvisatory music, often described as “delicate” or “intimate”. His principal influences were French impressionismErik Satie and Gabriel Fauré, resulting in a style in which musical development is minimized and expression is concentrated into very small forms. He was fond of ostinato figures, bell imitations (his mother’s family owned the Dencausse bell foundry and his grandfather was a bell maker), and a kind of incantatory, meditative sound, the most complete expression of which can be found in his masterpiece Musica Callada (or the Voice of Silence) based on the mystical poetry of Saint John of the Cross. He was also influenced by the sounds and smells of the maritime quarter of Barcelona, the cry of seagulls, the sound of children playing and popular Catalan culture. He often dispensed with bar lines and key signatures. His music is rooted in the chord G♭-C-E♭-A♭-D, which he named Barri de platja (the Beach Quarter).

Selected works

Piano solo

  • Impresiones íntimas (Intimate impressions), 9 miniatures, written 1911–1914
  • Pessebres (1914–1917) (Nativity Scenes)
  • Scènes d’enfants (1915–1918) (Scenes of children; later orchestrated by Alexandre Tansman)
  • Suburbis (1916–1917) (Suburbs; later orchestrated by Manuel Rosenthal)
  • Cants màgics (1920) (Magic Songs)
  • Fêtes lointaines (1920–1921) (Distant Celebrations)
  • Charmes (1920–1921)
  • Cançons i danses (1921–1979) (Songs and dances)
  • Dialogues (1923)
  • Préludes (1927–1960)
  • Variations on a Theme of Chopin (1938–1957) (based on Chopin‘s Prelude No. 7 in A major)
  • Paisatges (1942–1960) (Landscapes)
  • El Pont (1947)
  • Cançó de bressol (1951) (Lullaby)
  • Música callada (Silent music or Voices of silence) (Primer cuaderno – 1959, Segundo cuaderno – 1962, Tercer cuaderno – 1965, Cuarto cuaderno – 1967)

Voice and piano

  • L’hora grisa (1916) (The grey hour)
  • Cuatro melodías (1925) (Four melodies)
  • Comptines (1926–1943) (Nursery Rhymes)
  • Combat del somni (1942–1948) (Dream combat)
  • Cantar del alma (1951) (Soul Song)
  • Canciones becquerianas (1971) (Songs after Bécquer)



  • Los Improperios (The Insults), for chorus and orchestra (1964; written in memory of Francis Poulenc)
  • L’Ocell daurat (The Golden Bird), cantata for children’s choir (1970)


  • Suite Compostelana for guitar (1962; composed for Andrés Segovia)
  • Cançó i dansa No. 10 (Sobre dos Cantigas del Rei Alfonso X), originally for piano (1953), transcribed for guitar by the composer (undated manuscript)
  • Cançó i dansa No. 13 (Cançó: El cant dels ocells; Dansa (El bon caçador)) for guitar (1972).


Mompou himself recorded a few of his piano pieces for EMI in 1950 and then a much larger portion of his piano output, including the Musica callada, for Ensayo in 1974, when he was over 80 years old. The later recordings have been released in a boxed set of 4 CDs by Brilliant Classics. For decades, other pianists rarely recorded his works, with major figures such as Arthur RubinsteinGuiomar NovaesMagda Tagliaferro, and Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli recording just a handful of his pieces. In the late 1950s, Mompou’s wife, Carmen Bravo, recorded some of his works for EMI. The Spanish specialist Alicia de Larrocha recorded a larger selection, and more recently, Mompou’s works have received greater attention. Acclaimed contemporary pianists such as Stephen Hough in 1997 and Arcadi Volodos in 2013 have released full CDs devoted to his pieces, and Jordi Masó has recorded a cycle of Mompou’s piano works for Naxos Records. Other contemporary pianists who have recorded Mompou’s pieces include Daniil TrifonovAlexandre Tharaud, Herbert Henck, Jenny LinAaron Krister Johnson,[10] and Javier Perianes, among others. British pianist Martin Jones has recorded the complete piano works of Mompou for Nimbus, including those unpublished in Mompou’s lifetime, many of which were discovered when his apartment was cleared out in 2008. The great Spanish soprano Victoria de los Ángeles recorded Mompou’s haunting song cycle El combat del somni, and a video from 1971 survives of her singing one of these songs in her living room with the composer as her accompanist. Also, Spanish guitar great Andrés Segovia recorded Mompou’s Suite Compostelana, which was dedicated to him.

Links: Frederic Mompou wikipedia

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