The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

John Cage: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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    John Cage: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

    Music of the mid-20th century was profoundly influenced by the inventive compositions and unorthodox ideas of American avant-garde composer John Milton Cage, Jr. (b. Sept. 5, 1912, Los Angeles, Calif., U.S.—d. Aug. 12, 1992, New York, N.Y.).

    The son of an inventor, Cage briefly attended Pomona College and then traveled in Europe for a time. Returning to the United States in 1931, he studied music with Richard Buhlig, Arnold Schoenberg, Adolph Weiss, and Henry Cowell. While teaching in Seattle (1936–38), he began organizing
    percussion ensembles to perform his compositions, and he began experimenting with works for dance in collaboration with his longtime friend, the choreographer and dancer Merce Cunningham.

    Cage’s early compositions were written in the 12-tone method of his teacher Schoenberg, but by 1939 he had begun to experiment with increasingly unorthodox instruments such as the “prepared piano” (a piano modified by objects placed between its strings in order to produce
    percussive and otherworldly sound effects).

    John Cage also experimented with tape recorders, record players, and radios in his effort to step outside the bounds of conventional Western music and its concepts of meaningful sound. The concert he gave with his percussion ensemble at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City in 1943 marked the first step in his emergence as a leader of the American musical avant-garde.

    In the following years, Cage turned to Zen Buddhism and other Eastern philosophies, concluding that all the activities that make up music must be seen as part of a single natural process. He came to regard all kinds of sounds as potentially musical, and he encouraged audiences to take note of all sonic phenomena, rather than only those elements selected by a composer. To this end he cultivated the principle of indeterminism in his music.

    He used a number of devices to ensure randomness and thus eliminate any element of personal taste on the part of the performer: unspecified instruments and numbers of performers, freedom of duration of sounds and entire pieces, inexact notation, and sequences of events determined by random means such as by consultation with the Chinese Yijing (I Ching).

    In his later works he extended these freedoms over other media, so that a performance of HPSCHD (completed 1969) might include a light show, slide projections, and costumed performers, as well as the 7 harpsichord
    soloists and 51 tape machines for which it was scored. Among Cage’s best-known works are 4’33” (Four Minutes and Thirty-three Seconds, 1952), a piece in which the performer or performers remain utterly silent onstage for that amount of time (although the amount of time is left to the determination of the performer);

    Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (1951), for 12 randomly tuned radios, 24 performers, and conductor; the Sonatas and Interludes (1946–48) for prepared piano; Fontana Mix (1958), a piece based on a series of programmed transparent cards that, when superimposed, give a graph for the random selection of electronic sounds; Cheap Imitation (1969), an “impression” of the music of Erik Satie; and Roaratorio (1979), an electronic composition utilizing thousands of words found in James Joyce’s novel Finnegans Wake.

    Cage published several books, including Silence (1961) and M: Writings ’67–’72 (1973). His influence extended to such established composers as Earle Brown, Lejaren Hiller, Morton Feldman, and Christian Wolff.

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    John Cage: Piano Works (Full Album)

    Track List:

    00:00:00 Three Easy Pieces (1933): Round 00:01:54 Three Easy Pieces (1933): Duo 00:02:36 Three Easy Pieces (1933): infinite CaNon 00:03:11 Three Easy Pieces (1933): Quest 00:04:01 Metamorphosis (1938): Metamorphosis I 00:06:17 Metamorphosis (1938): Metamorphosis II 00:08:54 Metamorphosis (1938): Metamorphosis III

    00:13:59 Metamorphosis (1938): Metamorphosis IV 00:15:13 Metamorphosis (1938): Metamorphosis V 00:17:43 Jazz study (1942) 00:20:20 Tripled paced (first version, 1943): Tripled paced – 1a versione I

    00:21:16 Tripled paced (first version, 1943): Tripled paced – 1a versione II 00:22:07 Tripled paced (first version, 1943): Tripled paced – 1a versione III 00:22:43 Ad lib 00:25:46 Soliloquy 00:28:21 Ophelia 00:34:45 Two pieces (1946): Two pieces I 00:38:22 Two pieces (1946): Two pieces II 00:42:07 in A landscape 00:50:08 Dream 00:56:24 Suite for toy Piano – versione per Pianoforte – I 00:57:42 Suite for toy Piano – versione per Pianoforte – II 00:59:09 Suite for toy Piano – versione per Pianoforte – III

    01:00:20 Suite for toy Piano – versione per Pianoforte – IV 01:01:52 Suite for toy Piano – versione per Pianoforte – V 01:02:47 Seven Haiku I 01:03:00 Seven Haiku II 01:03:11 Seven Haiku III 01:03:34 Seven Haiku IV 01:03:50 Seven Haiku V 01:04:14 Seven Haiku vi 01:04:32 Seven Haiku viI 01:04:52 For M.C. and D.T. 01:05:40 Waiting 01:09:21 Socrate (1918) Drame symphonique en trois parties Transcription for two pianos by Cage (1944–1968): I Portrait de Socrate (Le Banquet)

    01:15:47 Socrate (1918) Drame symphonique en trois parties Transcription for two pianos by Cage (1944–1968): II Bords de l’Iliussus (Phèdre) 01:22:39 Socrate (1918) Drame symphonique en trois parties Transcription for two pianos by Cage (1944–1968): III Morte de Socrate (Phédon) 01:38:23 Cheap imitation (1969) I 01:44:26 Cheap imitation (1969) II 01:53:28 Cheap imitation (1969) III 02:09:39 Etudes Boreales I (Piano) 02:15:13 Etudes Boreales II (Piano)

    02:20:44 Etudes Boreales III (Piano) 02:26:22 Etudes Boreales IV (Piano) 02:32:04 Etudes Boreales I (cello) 02:37:32 Etudes Boreales II (cello) 02:43:12 Etudes Boreales III (cello) 02:48:41 Etudes Boreales IV (cello) 02:54:22 Etudes Boreales I (cello & Piano) 03:00:07 Etudes Boreales II (cello & Piano) 03:05:51 Etudes Boreales III (cello & Piano) 03:11:30 Etudes Boreales IV (cello & Piano)

    The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

    Woody Guthrie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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    Woody Guthrie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

    The songs of prolific American folksinger and songwriter Woodrow (“Woody”) Wilson Guthrie (b. July 14, 1912, Okemah, Okla., U.S.—d. Oct. 3, 1967, New York, N.Y.) chronicled the plight of common people, especially during the Great Depression.

    Woody Guthrie, the third of five children, was the son of a onetime cowboy, land speculator, and local Democratic politician who named him after Pres. Woodrow Wilson. His mother, who introduced her children to a wide variety of music, was thought to be mentally ill and was institutionalized when Guthrie was a teenager. Her erratic behavior
    was actually caused by Huntington’s disease, a hereditary neurological disorder about which little was known at the time and which would later afflict Guthrie too. The family lived near the relocated Creek nation in Okemah, Okla., a small agricultural and railroad town that boomed in the
    1920s when oil was discovered in the area. The effect on the town and its people of the decline that followed the boom sensitized the young Guthrie to others’ suffering, which he had also experienced firsthand through the
    calamities that befell his splintering family. (Guthrie paid particular attention to this period of his life in his autobiographical novel Bound for Glory [1943].)

    Soon after his mother’s institutionalization, Guthrie began “rambling” for the first time, coming to love life on the road. Though he often left Okemah to travel during his teens, he always returned to continue his high school education. At age 19 he relocated to Pampa, Texas, where he married Mary Jennings, with whom he had three children. When the Great Depression deepened and drought turned a large section of the Great Plains into the Dust Bowl, making it impossible for Guthrie to support his
    family, he again took to the road. Like so many other displaced people from the region (collectively called “Okies” regardless of whether they were Oklahomans), he headed for California, playing his guitar and harmonica and singing in taverns, taking odd jobs, and visiting hobo camps as he traveled by freight train, hitchhiked, or simply walked

    In Los Angeles in 1937, he landed a spot performing on the radio, first with his cousin, Jack Guthrie, then with Maxine Crissman, who called herself Lefty Lou. At that time Guthrie began songwriting in earnest, giving voice to the struggles of the dispossessed and downtrodden while celebrating their indomitable spirit in songs such as “Do Re Mi,” “Pretty Boy Floyd,” and “Dust Bowl Refugee.”

    Guthrie’s politics became increasingly leftist, and by the time he moved to New York City in 1940 he had become an important musical spokesman for labor and populist sentiments, embraced by left-leaning intellectuals
    and courted by communists. In New York, to which he had brought his family, Guthrie became one of the principal songwriters for the Almanac Singers, a group of activist performers—including Leadbelly, Pete Seeger, Sonny Terry, Brownie McGhee, and Cisco Houston—who used their
    music to attack fascism and support humanitarian and leftist causes.

    In 1941 Guthrie made his first recordings, with folklorist Alan Lomax, and traveled to the Pacific Northwest, where a commission to write songs in support of federal dam building and electrification projects produced such
    well-known compositions as “Grand Coulee Dam” and “Roll On Columbia.” Back in New York after serving as a merchant marine during World War II, his first marriage having ended in divorce, Guthrie married Marjorie (Greenblatt) Mazia, a Martha Graham Dance Company dancer with whom he would have four children (including son Arlo, who would become an important singer-songwriter in his own right in the 1960s).

    As the political tide in the United States turned conservative and then reactionary during the 1950s, Guthrie and his folksinger friends in New York kept alive the flame of activist music making. He continued writing and performing politically charged songs that inspired the American
    folk revival of the 1960s, at the head of which were performers such as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and Phil Ochs, who came to pay homage to Guthrie in his hospital room in New Jersey, to which he was confined beginning in 1954, after his increasingly erratic actions were finally and correctly diagnosed as the result of Huntington’s disease.

    Among the more than 1,000 songs that Guthrie wrote were a number of remarkable children’s songs written in the language and from the perspective of childhood, as well as some of the most lasting and influential songs in the canon of American music, not least “So Long (It’s Been Good to Know Yuh)”, “Hard Traveling,” “Blowing Down This Old Dusty Road, ” “Union Maid,” and (inspired by John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath) “Tom Joad .” Probably the most famous of his works is “This Land Is Your Land, ” which became a pillar of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s.

    At the time of his death in 1967, Guthrie had already begun to assume legendary stature as a folk figure, and his influence on such pivotal singer-songwriters as Bob Dylan and Bruce Springsteen was immense. A film version of his book Bound for Glory appeared in 1976, and in 1998 Billy
    Bragg and alternative rockers Wilco released the critically acclaimed Mermaid Avenue , a collection of previously unrecorded lyrics by Guthrie that they had set to music; Mermaid Avenue Vol. II followed in 2000.

    Woody Guthrie // Woodys Greatest Hits: My Dusty Road LP (FULL ALBUM)

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    A1This Land Is Your Land2:44
    A2Going Down The Road (I Ain’t Gonna Be Treated This Way)2:56
    A3Talking Sailor3:06
    A4Philadelphia Lawyer2:32
    A5Hard Travellin’2:38
    A6Jesus Christ2:41
    A7The Sinking Of The Reuben JamesWritten-By – Pete Seeger, Alma Singers*, Woody Guthrie
    B1Pretty Boy Floyd3:06
    B2Grand Coulee Dam2:09
    B3Nine Hundred Miles2:51
    B4Going Down The Road (I Ain’t Gonna Be Treated This Way)2:57
    B5My Daddy (Flies A Ship In The Sky)2:33
    B6Bad Repetation2:50
    The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

    Robert Johnson: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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    Table of Contents

      Robert Johnson: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

      Robert Johnson (b. c. 1911, Hazlehurst, Miss., U.S.—d. Aug. 16, 1938, near Greenwood, Miss.) was an American blues composer, guitarist, and singer whose eerie falsetto singing voice and masterful, rhythmic slide guitar influenced both his contemporaries and many later blues and rock musicians.

      Robert Johnson was the product of a confusing childhood, with three men serving as his father before he reached age seven. Little is known about his biological father (Noah Johnson, whom his mother never married), and the boy and his mother lived on various plantations in the Mississippi Delta region before settling briefly in Memphis, Tenn., with her first husband (Robert Dodds, who had changed his surname to Spencer).

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      The bulk of Johnson’s youth, however, was spent in Robinsonville, Miss., with his mother and her second husband (Dusty Willis). There, Johnson learned to play the Jew’s harp and harmonica before taking up the guitar. In 1929, he married 16-year-old Virginia Travis, whose death in childbirth (along with that of their baby) in April 1930 devastated Johnson.

      In Robinsonville he came in contact with well-known Mississippi Delta bluesmen Willie Brown, Charley Patton, and Son House—all of whom influenced his playing and none of whom was particularly impressed by his talent. They were dazzled by his musical ability, however, when he returned to town after spending as much as a year away. That time away is central to Johnson’s mythic status.

      According to legend, during that period Johnson made a deal with Satan at a crossroads, acquiring his prodigious talent as a guitarist, singer, and songwriter in exchange for the stipulation that he would have only eight more years to live. (A similar story circulated in regard to another Mississippi bluesman, Tommy Johnson.)

      Music historian Robert Palmer, in is highly regarded book Deep Blues (1981), instead ascribes Robert Johnson’s remarkable musical attainments to the time he had to hone his skills as a guitarist under the instruction of Ike Zinneman as a result of the financial support he received from the older woman he married near Hazlehurst, Miss. (Johnson’s birthplace), and to the wide variety of music to which he was exposed during his hiatus from Robinsonville, including the singlestring picking styles of Lonnie Johnson and Scrapper Blackwell.

      After returning briefly to Robinsonville, Johnson settled in Helena, Ark., where he played with Elmore James, Robert Nighthawk, and Howlin’ Wolf, among others. He also became involved with Estella Coleman and informally adopted her son, Robert Lockwood, Jr., who later became a notable blues musician under the name Robert Jr. Lockwood. Johnson traveled widely throughout Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, and Tennessee and as far north as Chicago and New York, playing at house parties, juke joints, and lumber camps and on the street.

      In 1936–37 he made a series of recordings in a hotel room in San Antonio, Texas, and a warehouse in Dallas. His repertoire included several blues songs by House and others, but Johnson’s original numbers, such as “Me and the Devil Blues,” “Hellhound on My Trail,” “Sweet Home Chicago,” “I Believe I’ll Dust My Broom,” “Ramblin’ on My Mind,” and “Love in Vain” are his most compelling pieces. Unlike the songs of many of his contemporaries—which tended to unspool loosely, employing combinations of traditional and improvised lyrics—Johnson’s songs were tightly composed, and his song structure and lyrics were praised by Bob Dylan.

      Despite the limited number of his recordings, Johnson had a major impact on other musicians, including Muddy Waters, Elmore James, Eric Clapton, and the Rolling Stones. Johnson died of poisoning after drinking strychnine-laced whiskey in a juke joint.

      Robert Johnson – The Best Of Vol 1 (Full Album / Album complet)

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      Track List:

      00:00 “I Believe I’ll Dust My Broom” Robert Johnson 02:58 “Phonograph Blues” Robert Johnson 05:33 “Phonograph Blues (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson 08:08 “Ramblin’ On My Mind” Robert Johnson 11:01 “Ramblin’ On My Mind (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson 13:23 “Kindhearted Woman Blues” Robert Johnson 16:14 “Kindhearted Woman Blues (Alt. Version Take 2)” Robert Johnson 18:46 “Terraplane Blues” Robert Johnson

      21:46 “I’m A Steady Rollin’ Man” Robert Johnson 24:24 “Walking Blues” Robert Johnson 26:53 “Last Fair Deal Gone Down” Robert Johnson 29:32 “Dead Shrimp Blues” Robert Johnson 32:09 “Sweet Home Chicago” Robert Johnson 35:11 “32-20 Blues” Robert Johnson 38:02 “Come On In My Kitchen” Robert Johnson 40:52 “Come On In My Kitchen (Alt. Version – Take 2)” Robert Johnson

      43:30 “If I Had Possession Over Judgement Day” Robert Johnson 46:04 “Me And The Devil Blues” Robert Johnson 48:36 “Me And The Devil Blues (Alt. Version – Take 1)” Robert Johnson 51:12 “Preaching Blues (Up Jumped The Devil)” Robert Johnson 54:05 “Stones In My Passway” Robert Johnson

      The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

      Bill Monroe: The 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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      Bill Monroe: The 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

      Bill Monroe (b. Sept. 13, 1911, Rosine, Ky., U.S.—d. Sept. 9, 1996, Springfield, near Nashville, Tenn.)

      Creation of the bluegrass style of country music is credited to American singer, songwriter, and mandolin player William (“Bill”) Smith Monroe.

      The youngest of eight children of a Kentucky farmer and entrepreneur, Monroe was exposed early to traditional folk music by his mother. Another important early musical influence on the young Monroe was Arnold Schultz, a local African American miner who also was an accomplished fiddler and guitarist, and who played both blues and country music.

      Monroe began playing the mandolin professionally in 1927 in a band led by his older brothers Birch and Charlie. In 1930 they moved to Indiana, and in 1932 they joined a barn-dance touring show; their reputation grew, but, because Birch did not like to travel, Bill and Charlie maintained the Monroe Brothers as a duo, touring widely from Nebraska to South Carolina.

      In 1936, they made their first recordings on the RCA Victor label, recording 60 songs for Victor over the next two years. In 1938 Bill and Charlie decided to form separate bands. Bill’s second band, the Blue Grass Boys (his first, called the Kentuckians, played together for only three months), auditioned for the Grand Ole Opry on radio station WSM in Nashville, Tenn., and became regular performers on that program in 1939.

      Monroe’s signature sound emerged fully in 1945, when banjoist Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt joined his band. Scruggs was among the first banjoists in country music whose principal role was musical rather than comical; Monroe’s original banjoist David (“Stringbean”) Akeman
      had provided a humorous touch to the proceedings. The Blue Grass Boys established the classic makeup of a bluegrass group—with mandolin, fiddle, guitar, banjo, and upright bass—and ultimately bequeathed the band’s name to the genre itself.

      Bluegrass is characterized by acoustic instruments; a driving syncopated rhythm; tight, complex harmonies; and the use of higher keys—B-flat, B, and E rather than the customary G, C, and D. The band played traditional folk songs and Monroe’s own compositions, the most famous of which were “Blue Moon of Kentucky” (later famously covered and transformed by a young Elvis Presley), “Uncle Pen” (a tribute to another early influence on Monroe, his fiddle-playing uncle Pendleton Vandiver), and “Raw Hide.”

      Although Monroe had sung only harmony as a member of the Monroe Brothers, his high, mournful tenor (both as lead and backing voice) established the convention of bluegrass music’s “high lonesome” vocals, and his breakneck-tempo mandolin playing set the standard for other bluegrass performers.

      The Blue Grass Boys enjoyed wide popularity, but Scruggs and Flatt quit in 1948 in order to form their own influential bluegrass band, the Foggy Mountain Boys. Soon other bands playing this style of music began to appear, many of them led by former members of Monroe’s band, such as Sonny Osborne (the Osborne Brothers), Carter Stanley (who with his brother Ralph formed the Stanley Brothers), Don Reno, Jimmy Martin, and Mac Wiseman. Bluegrass was promoted at numerous annual festivals, such as the one founded by Monroe in 1967 at Bean Blossom, Ind. He continued to perform until shortly before his death. Monroe’s last performance occurred on March 15, 1996. He ended his touring and playing career in April, following a stroke. Monroe died on September 9, 1996, in Springfield, Tennessee, four days before his 85th birthday.

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      Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys – LIVE at Madison, NJ 6 20 66

      Track Listing:

      1. // Sally Goodin
      2. John Henry
      3. Bluegrass Part I
      4. Just Because
      5. Back Up and Push
      6. True Life Blues
      7. White House Blues
      8. Bluegrass Breakdown
      9. Paddy on the Turnpike*
      10. Midnight on the Stormy Deep
      11. Brown County Breakdown
      12. Rawhide
      13. Wayfaring Stranger
      14. Moonlight Waltz
      15. Willow Garden
      16. Tall Timber
      17. Can’t You Hear Me Calling
      18. I Live in the Past
      19. Live and Let Live
      20. The Hills of Roane County


      Bill Monroe – mandolin

      Peter Rowan – guitar
      Don Lineburger – banjo
      James Monroe – bass
      Gene Lowinger – fiddle
      Tex Logan – fiddle
      Richard Greene – fiddle

      The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

      Dmitry Shostakovich: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Dmitry Shostakovich: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        Russian composer Dmitry Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (b. Sept. 12 [Sept. 25, New Style], 1906, St. Petersburg, Russia —d. Aug. 9, 1975, Moscow, Russia, U.S.S.R.) was renowned particularly for his 15 symphonies numerous chamber works, and concerti, many of them written under the pressures of government-imposed standards of Soviet art.

        Early Life and Works

        Shostakovich was the son of an engineer. He entered the Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg, subsequently Leningrad) Conservatory in 1919, where he studied piano with Leonid Nikolayev until 1923 and composition until 1925 with Aleksandr Glazunov and Maksimilian Steinberg. Even before his keyboard success in Warsaw, he had had a far greater success as a composer with the Symphony No. 1 (1924–25), which quickly achieved worldwide currency. The symphony’s stylistic roots were numerous; the influence of composers as diverse as Tchaikovsky and Paul Hindemith is clearly discernible. In the music Shostakovich wrote in the next few years he submitted to an even wider range of influences, and Shostakovich openly experimented with avant-garde trends.

        His satiric opera The Nose (composed 1927–28), based on Nikolay Gogol’s story Nos, displayed a comprehensive awareness of what was new in Western music, although already it seems as if the satire is extended to the styles themselves, for the avant-garde sounds are contorted with wry humor. Not surprisingly, Shostakovich’s finer second opera, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (composed 1930–32; revised and retitled Katerina Izmaylova), marked a stylistic retreat. Yet even this more accessible musical language was too radical for the Soviet authorities.

        From 1928, when Joseph Stalin inaugurated his First Five-Year Plan, a direct and popular style was demanded in music. Avant-garde music and jazz were officially banned in 1932. Shostakovich did not experience immediate official displeasure, but when it came it was devastating. A performance of Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District in 1936 precipitated the official condemnation of the opera and of its creator.

        Shostakovich was bitterly attacked in the official press, and both the opera and the still-unperformed Symphony No. 4 (1935–36) were withdrawn. The composer responded with his next major work, Symphony No. 5 (1937). Compounded largely of serious, even somber and elegiac music and presented with a compelling directness, the symphony scored an immediate success with both the public and the authorities.

        With his Symphony No. 5, Shostakovich forged the style that he used in his subsequent compositions. Gustav Mahler was a clear progenitor of both Symphony No. 4 and Symphony No. 5, but the latter represented a drastic shift in technique. Whereas the earlier symphony had been a
        sprawling work, founded upon a free proliferation of melodic ideas, the first movement of Symphony No. 5 was marked by melodic concentration and Classical form.

        Indeed, Shostakovich had an almost obsessive concern with the working out of a single expressive character, which can also be seen in the recurrence in his mature music of certain thematic ideas, notably various permutations founded upon the juxtaposition of the major and minor third, and the four-note cell D-E♭-C-B derived from the composer’s initials in their German equivalent (D. Sch.), interpreted according to the labels of German musical notation (in which “S,” spoken as “Es,” equals E♭ and “h” equals B).

        In 1937 Shostakovich became a teacher of composition in the Leningrad Conservatory, and the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 found him still in that city. He composed his Symphony No. 7 (1941) in beleaguered Leningrad during the latter part of that year and finished
        it in Kuybyshev (now Samara), to which he and his family had been evacuated.

        The work achieved a quick fame, as much because of the quasi-romantic circumstances of its composition as because of its musical quality. In 1943 Shostakovich settled in Moscow as a teacher of composition at the conservatory, and from 1945 he taught also at the Leningrad Conservatory.

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        Later Life and Works

        Shostakovich’s works written during the mid-1940s contain some of his best music, especially the Symphony No. 8 (1943), the Piano Trio (1944), and the Violin Concerto No. 1 (1947–48). Their prevailing seriousness, even grimness, was to contribute to Shostakovich’s second fall from
        official grace. When the Cold War began, the Soviet authorities sought to impose a firmer ideological control, demanding a more accessible musical language than some composers were currently using. In Moscow in 1948, at a now notorious conference, the leading figures of Soviet music—including Shostakovich—were attacked and disgraced.

        As a result, the quality of Soviet composition slumped in the next few years, and his teaching activities at both the Moscow and Leningrad conservatories were terminated. Yet he was not completely intimidated, and, in his String Quartet No. 4 (1949) and especially his Quartet No. 5 (1951), he offered a splendid rejoinder to those who would have had him renounce completely his style and musical integrity. His Symphony No. 10, composed in 1953, the year of Stalin’s death, flew in the face of his official
        detractors, yet, like his Symphony No. 5, compelled acceptance by sheer quality and directness.

        From that time on, Shostakovich’s biography is essentially a catalog of his works. He was left to pursue his creative career largely unhampered by official interference. The composer had visited the United States in 1949,
        and in 1958 he made an extended tour of Western Europe, where he received a number of honors for his music.

        After Prokofiev’s death in 1953, he was the undisputed head of Russian music. Since his own death, his music has been the subject of furious contention between those upholding the Soviet view of the composer as a sincere Communist and those who view him as a closet dissident.

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        The Best of Shostakovich

        (0:00) Symphony No. 4 in C minor, Op. 43: Moderato con moto (8:45) Symphony No. 5 in D minor, Op. 47: Moderato (24:16) Symphony No. 5 in D minor, Op. 47: Allegro non troppo (35:47) Symphony No. 7 in C major (Leningrad), Op. 60: Memories, Moderato (poco allegretto) (46:16) Symphony No. 8 in C minor, Op. 65 (Stalingrad): Allegro non troppo (53:00) Symphony No. 10 in E minor, Op. 93: Andante (1:05:17) Symphony No. 11 in G minor, Op. 103 (The Year 1905): Palace Square: adagio (1:20:44) Symphony No. 15 in A major, Op. 141: Adagio – allegretto – adagio – allegretto (1:34:41) Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, Op. 67: Andante – Moderato

        (1:41:55) Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, Op. 67: Allegretto (1:52:19) Piano Concerto No. 1, for piano, trumpet & strings, in C minor, Op. 35: Lento (1:59:35) Piano Concerto No. 2 in F major, Op. 102: Allegro (2:06:56) Violin Concerto No. 1 in A minor, Op. 77 Passacaglia, andante, cadenza (2:25:16) Cello Concerto No. 1 in E flat major, Op. 107: Allegretto (2:31:32) Chamber Symphony in F major, Op. 73a (2:39:51) Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 2: Dance No. 1 (2:42:52) Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 2: March (2:46:02) Quintet for piano & strings in G minor, Op. 57: Scherzo: Allegretto

        (2:49:28) Sonata for piano No. 2 in B minor, Op. 61: Allegretto (2:57:00) String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, Op. 110: Largo (3:01:34) String Quartet No. 11 in F minor, Op. 122: Introduction (andantino) (3:03:49) String Quartet No. 11 in F minor, Op. 122: Recitativo (adagio) (3:05:09) String Quartet No. 15 in E flat minor, Op. 144: Elegy (adagio) (3:17:31) Hamlet, suite from the film score, Op.116a (assembled by Atovmyan): Prelude (3:19:53) Overture on Russian and Khirghiz Folksongs, for orchestra, Op. 115

        The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

        Aaron Copland: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Aaron Copland: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        American composer Aaron Copland (b. Nov. 14, 1900, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—d. Dec. 2, 1990, North Tarrytown [now Sleepy Hollow], N.Y.) achieved a distinctive musical characterization of American themes in an expressive modern style.

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        Copland, the son of Russian-Jewish immigrants, was born in New York City and attended public schools there. An older sister taught him to play the piano, and by the time he was 15 he had decided to become a composer. In the summer of 1921 Copland attended the newly founded
        school for Americans at Fontainebleau, where he came under the influence of Nadia Boulanger, a brilliant teacher who shaped the outlook of an entire generation of American musicians. He decided to stay on in Paris, where he became Boulanger’s first American student in composition.

        After three years in Paris, Copland returned to New York City with an important commission: Nadia Boulanger had asked him to write an organ concerto for her American appearances. Copland composed the piece while working as the pianist of a hotel trio at a summer resort in Pennsylvania. That season the Symphony for Organ and Orchestra had its premiere in Carnegie Hall with the New York Symphony.

        In his growth as a composer Copland mirrored the important trends of his time. After his return from Paris, he worked with jazz rhythms in Music for the Theater (1925) and the Piano Concerto (1926). There followed a period during which he was strongly influenced by Igor Stravinsky’s
        neoclassicism, turning toward an abstract style he described as “more spare in sonority, more lean in texture.” This outlook prevailed in the Piano Variations (1930), Short Symphony (1933), and Statements for Orchestra (1933–35). After this last work, there occurred a change of direction that was to usher in the most productive phase of Copland’s career.

        aaron copland sheet music score download partitura partition spartiti 楽譜

        He realized that a new public for modern music was being created by the new media of radio, phonograph, and film scores: “It made no sense to ignore them and to continue writing as if they did not exist. I felt that it was worth the effort to see if I couldn’t say what I had to say in the
        simplest possible terms.” Copland therefore was led to what became a most significant development after the 1930s: the attempt to simplify the new music in order that it would have meaning for a large public.

        The decade that followed saw the production of the scores that spread Copland’s fame throughout the world. Most important of these were the three ballets based on American folk material: Billy the Kid (1938), Rodeo (1942), and Appalachian Spring (1944; commissioned by dancer Martha Graham). To this group belonged also El salón México (1936), an orchestral piece based on Mexican melodies and rhythms; two works for high-school students—the “play opera” The Second Hurricane (1937) and An Outdoor Overture (1938); and a series of film scores, of which the best known are Of Mice and Men (1939), Our Town (1940), The Red Pony
        (1948), and The Heiress (1948).

        Typical too of the Copland style are two major works that were written in time of war— Lincoln Portrait (1942), for speaker and chorus, on a text
        drawn from Lincoln’s speeches, and Letter from Home (1944), as well as the melodious Third Symphony (1946).

        In his later years, Copland refined his treatment of Americana: “I no longer feel the need of seeking out conscious Americanism. Because we live here and work here, we can be certain that when our music is mature it will also be American in quality.” His later works include an opera, The Tender Land (1954); Twelve Poems of Emily Dickinson (1950), for voice and piano; and the delightful Nonet (1960).

        During these years, Copland also produced a number of works in which he showed himself increasingly receptive to the serial techniques of the so-called 12-tone school of composer Arnold Schoenberg. Notable among such works are the stark and dissonant Piano Fantasy (1957); Connotations (1962), which was commissioned for the opening of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City; and Inscape (1967). The 12-tone works were not generally well received; after 1970 Copland virtually stopped composing, though he continued to lecture and to conduct through the mid-1980s.

        aaron copland free sheet music & scores pdf download

        For the better part of four decades, as composer (of operas, ballets, orchestral music, band music, chamber music, choral music, and film scores), teacher, writer of books and articles on music, organizer of musical events, and a much sought-after conductor, Copland expressed “the deepest reactions of the American consciousness to the American scene.”

        He received more than 30 honorary degrees and many additional awards. He also wrote a number of books on music. A private man not given to making public statements about his personal life, Copland nonetheless made no efforts to hide his homosexuality, traveling openly with younger lovers. And though blacklisted during the McCarthy era, the government-led censure had no lasting effect on Copland’s work and career.

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        Copland Plays Copland Piano Concerto

        • 1. Andante sostenuto
        • 2. Molto moderato – Allegro assai

        New York Philharmonic Young People’s Concert, Jazz in the Concert Hall Recorded February 8, 1964.

        The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

        Count Basie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Count Basie: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        American jazz musician William Basie, (b. Aug. 21, 1904, Red Bank, N.J., U.S.—d. April 26, 1984, Hollywood, Fla.) popularly known as “Count,” was noted for his spare, economical piano style and for his leadership of influential and widely heralded big bands.

        Basie studied music with his mother and was later influenced by the Harlem pianists James P. Johnson and Fats Waller, receiving informal tutelage on the organ from the latter. He began his professional career as an accompanist on the vaudeville circuit. Stranded in Kansas City,
        Mo., in 1927, Basie remained there and in 1935 assumed the leadership of a nine-piece band composed of former members of the Walter Page and Bennie Moten orchestras.

        One night, while the band was broadcasting on a shortwave radio station in Kansas City, he was dubbed “Count” Basie by a radio announcer who wanted to indicate his standing in a class with aristocrats of jazz such as
        Duke Ellington. Jazz critic and record producer John Hammond heard the broadcasts and promptly launched the band on its career. Though rooted in the riff style of the 1930s swing-era big bands, the Basie orchestra played
        with the forceful drive and carefree swing of a small combo.

        They were considered a model for ensemble rhythmic conception and tonal balance—this despite the fact that most of Basie’s sidemen in the 1930s were poor sight readers; mostly, the band relied on “head” arrangements (so called because the band had collectively composed and memorized them, rather than using sheet music).

        The early Basie band was also noted for its legendary soloists and outstanding rhythm section. It featured such jazzmen as tenor saxophonists Lester Young and Herschel Evans, trumpeters Buck Clayton and Harry “Sweets” Edison, and trombonists Benny Morton and Dicky Wells. The legendary Billie Holiday was a vocalist with Basie for a short stint (1937–38), although she was unable to record with the band because of her contract with another record label; mostly, vocals were handled by Jimmy Rushing. The rhythm unit for the band—pianist Basie, guitarist Freddie Green (who joined the Basie band in 1937 and stayed for 50
        years), bassist Walter Page, and drummer Jo Jones—was unique in its lightness, precision, and relaxation, becoming the precursor for modern jazz accompanying styles.

        Basie began his career as a stride pianist, reflecting the influence of Johnson and Waller, but the style most strongly associated with him was characterized by spareness and precision. Whereas other pianists were noted for technical flash and dazzling dexterity, Basie was known for his use of silence and for reducing his solo passages to the minimum amount of notes required for maximum emotional and rhythmic effect.

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        The Basie orchestra had several hit recordings during the late 1930s and early ’40s, among them “Jumpin’ at the Woodside,” “Every Tub,” “Lester Leaps In,” “Super Chief,” “Taxi War Dance,” “Miss Thing,” “Shorty George,” and “One O’Clock Jump,” the band’s biggest hit and theme song. It had continued success throughout the war years, but, like all big bands, it had declined in popularity by the end of the 1940s.

        During 1950 and ’51, economy forced Basie to front an octet, the only period in his career in which he did not lead a big band. In 1952 increased demand for personal appearances allowed Basie to form a new orchestra that in many ways was as highly praised as his bands of the 1930s and ’40s. (Fans distinguish the two major eras in Basie bands as the “Old Testament” and “New Testament.”)

        The Basie orchestra of the 1950s was a slick, professional unit that was expert at sight reading demanding arrangements. Outstanding soloists such as tenor saxophonists Lucky Thompson, Paul Quinichette, and Eddie “Lockjaw” Davis and trumpeters Clark Terry and Charlie Shavers, figured
        prominently. Singer Joe Williams, whose authoritative, bluesinfluenced
        vocals can be heard on hit recordings such as “Every Day I Have the Blues” and “Alright, Okay, You Win,” was also a major component in the band’s success. Arrangers Neal Hefti, Buster Harding, and Ernie Wilkins defined the new band’s sound on recordings such as “Li’l Darlin’,”
        “The Kid from Red Bank,” “Cute,” and “April in Paris” and on celebrated albums such as The Atomic Mr. Basie (1957).

        The 1950s band showcased the sound and style Basie was to employ for the remainder of his career, although there were to be occasional—and successful—experiments such as Afrique (1970), an album of African rhythms and avant-garde compositions that still managed to remain faithful to the overall Basie sound.

        Throughout the 1960s, Basie’s recordings were often unremarkable, but he remained an exceptional concert performer and made fine records with singers Ella Fitzgerald, Sarah Vaughan, and Frank Sinatra. When jazz record producer Norman Granz formed his Pablo label in the 1970s, several established jazz artists, including Basie, signed on in order to record unfettered by commercial demands. Basie benefited greatly from his association with Granz and made several recordings during the ’70s that rank among his best work.

        He recorded less often with his big band during this era (although when he did, the results were outstanding), concentrating instead on small-group and piano-duet recordings. Especially noteworthy were the albums featuring the duo of Basie and Oscar Peterson, with Basie’s economy and Peterson’s dexterous virtuosity proving an effective study in contrasts. Many of Basie’s albums of the ’70s were Grammy Award winners or nominees.

        Suffering from diabetes and chronic arthritis during his later years, Basie continued to front his big band until a month before his death in 1984. The band itself carried on into the next century, with Thad Jones, Frank Foster, and Grover Mitchell each assuming leadership for various intervals. Basie’s autobiography, Good Morning Blues, written with Albert Murray, was published posthumously in 1985. Along with Duke Ellington, Count Basie is regarded as one of the two most important and influential bandleaders in the history of jazz.

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        Count Basie and his Orchestra live at the North Sea Jazz Festival • 13-07-1979 • World of Jazz

        The Orchestra: • Count Basie: piano • John Clayton, bass • Butch Miles, drums • Freddie Green, guitar, • Sonny Cohn, Pete Minger, Ray Brown, Paul Cohen, trumpet • Bill Hughes, Mel Wanzo, Mitchell Wood Jr, Dennis Wilson, trombone • Eric Dixon, Charlie Fowlkes, Kenny Hing, Bobby Plater, Danny Turner, saxophone • Dennis Rowland, vocals

        The repertoire: Wind Machine Shiny Stockings John The III There Will Never Be Another You Good Time Blues April In Paris I Can’t Get Started In A Mellotone Easy Living 9.20 Special Good Mileage Splanky Recorded on 17 July 1979 at the Congresgebouw, The Hague, the Netherlands by AVRO TV

        The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

        Umm Kulthum: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Umm Kulthum: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        Egyptian singer Umm Kulthūm (b. May 4, 1904?, Tummāy al-Zahāyrah, Egypt—d. Feb. 3, 1975, Cairo) mesmerized Arab audiences from the Persian Gulf to Morocco for half a century. She was one of the most famous Arab singers and public personalities in the 20th century.

        Umm Kulthūm’s father was a village imam who sang traditional religious songs at weddings and holidays to make ends meet. She learned to sing from him, and, when he noticed the strength of her voice, he began taking her with him, dressed as a boy to avoid the opprobrium of displaying a young daughter onstage.

        Egyptian society during Umm Kulthūm’s youth held singing—even of the religious variety—to be a disreputable occupation, especially for a female. Umm Kulthūm made a name for herself singing in the towns and villages of the Egyptian delta (an area throughout which she retained a great following).

        By the time she was a teenager, she had become the family star.
        Sometime about 1923 the family moved to Cairo, a major centre of the lucrative world of entertainment and emerging mass media production in the Middle East. There they were perceived as old-fashioned and countrified.

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        To improve her image and acquire sophistication, Umm Kulthūm studied music and poetry from accomplished performers and literati and copied the manners of the ladies of wealthy homes in which she was invited to sing. She soon made a name in the homes and salons of the wealthy as well as in public venues such as theatres and cabarets.

        By the mid-1920s, she had made her first recordings and had achieved a more polished and sophisticated musical and personal style. By the end of the 1920s, she had become a sought-after performer and was one of the best-paid musicians in Cairo. Her extremely successful career in commercial recording eventually extended to radio, film, and television. In 1936, she made her first motion picture, Wedad, in which she played the title role. It was the first of six motion pictures in which she was to act.

        Beginning in 1937, she regularly gave a performance on the first Thursday (which in most Islamic countries is the last day of the workweek) of every month. By this time she had moved from singing religious songs to performing popular tunes—often in the colloquial dialect and accompanied by a small traditional orchestra—and she became known for her emotive, passionate renditions of arrangements by the best composers, poets, and songwriters of the day.

        These included the poets A mad Shawqī and Bayrām al-Tūnisī (who wrote many of the singer’s colloquial Egyptian songs) and, later, the noted composer Mu ammad ‘Abd al-Wahhāb, with whom she collaborated on 10 songs. The first of these tunes, “Inta ‘Umrī” (“You Are My Life”), remains a modern classic. Her strong and nuanced voice and her ability to fashion multiple iterations of single lines of text drew audiences into the emotion and meaning of the poetic lyrics and extended for hours what often had been written as relatively short compositions.

        Known sometimes as Kawkab al-Sharq (“Star of the East”), Umm Kulthūm had an immense repertoire, which included religious, sentimental, and nationalistic songs. In the midst of the turmoil created by two world wars, the Great Depression of the 1930s, and the 1952 Egyptian revolution, she cultivated a public persona as a patriotic Egyptian and a devout Muslim. She sang songs in support of Egyptian independence (“Nashīd al-Jāmi‘ah” [“The University Anthem”], “Sa‘alu Qalbī” [“Ask My Heart”]) and in the 1950s sang many songs in support of Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser, with whom she developed a close friendship. One
        of her songs associated with Nasser—“Wallāhi Zamān, Yā Silā ī” (“It’s Been a Long Time, O Weapon of Mine”)—was adopted as the Egyptian national anthem from 1960 to 1979.

        She served as president of the Musician’s Union for seven years and held positions on numerous government commissions on the arts. Her popularity was further enhanced by her generous donations to Arab causes. After Egypt’s defeat in the Six-Day War of June 1967, she toured Egypt and the broader Arab world, donating the proceeds of her concerts to the Egyptian government. Health problems plagued the singer most of her life.

        During the late 1940s and early ’50s, she worked only on a limited basis, and on a number of occasions throughout her life she traveled to Europe and the United States for treatment of a variety of ailments. Most obviously, problems with her eyes (purportedly from years spent in front
        of stage lights) forced her to wear heavy sunglasses, which became a hallmark during her later life. Such was her popularity that news of her death provoked a spontaneous outpouring of hysterical grief, and millions of admirers lined the streets for her funeral procession.

        She remained one of the Arab world’s best-selling singers even decades after her death. In 2001 the Egyptian government estaEnta Oumry (Concert) – Umm Kulthum انت عمرى (حفلة) – ام كلثومblished the Kawkab al-Sharq Museum in Cairo to celebrate the singer’s life and accomplishments.

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        Enta Oumry (Concert) – Umm Kulthum انت عمرى (حفلة) – ام كلثوم

        The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

        Louis Armstrong: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Louis Armstrong: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        Louis Armstrong, (b. Aug. 4, 1901, New Orleans, La., U.S.—d. July 6, 1971, New York, N.Y.) or Satchmo (a truncation of “Satchel Mouth”), was the leading trumpeter and one of the most influential artists in jazz history.
        Armstrong grew up in dire poverty in New Orleans, La., when jazz was very young. As a child, he worked at odd jobs and sang in a boys’ quartet.

        In 1913, he was sent to the Colored Waifs Home as a juvenile delinquent. There he learned to play cornet in the home’s band, and playing music quickly became a passion. Armstrong developed rapidly: he played in marching and jazz bands, becoming skillful enough to replace New Orleans jazz cornetist King Oliver in the important Kid Ory band in about 1918, and in the early 1920s he played in Mississippi riverboat dance bands.

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        Fame beckoned in 1922 when Oliver, then leading a band in Chicago, sent for Armstrong to play second cornet. Oliver’s Creole Jazz Band was the apex of the early, contrapuntal New Orleans ensemble style, and it included musicians such as the brothers Johnny and Baby Dodds and pianist Lil Hardin, who married Armstrong in 1924. The young Armstrong became popular through his ingenious ensemble lead and second cornet lines, his cornet duet passages (called “breaks”) with Oliver, and his solos. He recorded his first solos as a member of the Oliver band in such pieces as “Chimes Blues” and “Tears.”

        Encouraged by his wife, Armstrong quit Oliver’s band to seek further fame. He played for a year in New York City in Fletcher Henderson’s band and on many recordings with others before returning to Chicago and playing in large orchestras.

        There he created his most important early works, the Armstrong Hot Five and Hot Seven recordings of 1925–28, on which he emerged as the first great jazz soloist. By then the New Orleans ensemble style, which allowed few solo opportunities, could no longer contain his explosive creativity. He retained vestiges of the style in such masterpieces as “Hotter Than That,” “Struttin’ with Some Barbecue,” “Wild Man Blues,” and “Potato Head Blues” but largely abandoned it while accompanied by pianist Earl Hines (“West End Blues” and “Weather Bird ”).

        By that time Armstrong was playing trumpet, and his technique was superior to that of all competitors. Altogether, his immensely compelling swing, his brilliant technique, his sophisticated, daring sense of harmony, his ever-mobile, expressive attack, timbre, and inflections, his gift for creating vital melodies; his dramatic, often complex sense of solo design, and his outsized musical energy and genius made these recordings major innovations in jazz.

        Armstrong was a famous musician by 1929, when he moved from Chicago to New York City and performed in the theater review Hot Chocolates. He toured America and Europe as a trumpet soloist accompanied by big bands; for several years beginning in 1935, Luis Russell’s big band served as the Louis Armstrong band. During this time he abandoned much of the material of his earlier years for popular songs by such composers as Hoagy Carmichael, Irving Berlin, and Duke Ellington. With his new repertoire
        came a new, simplified style: he created melodic paraphrases and variations as well as chord-change-based improvisations on these songs. His trumpet range continued to expand, as demonstrated in the high-note showpieces in his repertoire.

        His beautiful tone and bravura solos with brilliant highnote climaxes led to such masterworks as “That’s My Home,” “Body and Soul,” and “Star Dust.” One of the inventors of scat singing, he began to sing lyrics on most of his recordings, varying melodies or decorating with scat phrases in a gravel voice that was immediately identifiable. Although he sang such humorous songs as “Hobo, You Can’t Ride This Train,” he also sang many standard songs, often with an intensity and creativity that equaled those of his trumpet playing.

        Louis and Lil Armstrong separated in 1931. From 1935 to the end of his life, Armstrong’s career was managed by Joe Glaser, who hired Armstrong’s bands and guided his film career (beginning with Pennies from Heaven, 1936) and radio appearances. Armstrong was the dominant influence on the swing era, when most trumpeters attempted to emulate
        his inclination to dramatic structure, melody, or technical virtuosity.

        Trombonists, too, appropriated Armstrong’s phrasing, and saxophonists as different as Coleman Hawkins and Bud Freeman modeled their styles on different aspects of Armstrong’s. Above all else, his swing-style trumpet
        playing influenced virtually all jazz horn players who followed him, and the swing of his vocal style was an important influence on singers from Billie Holiday to Bing Crosby.

        In most of Armstrong’s movie, radio, and television appearances, he was featured as a good-humoured entertainer. He played a rare dramatic role in the film New Orleans (1947), in which he also performed in a Dixieland
        band. This prompted the formation of Louis Armstrong’s All-Stars, a Dixieland band that at first included such other jazz greats as Hines and trombonist Jack Teagarden.

        For most of the rest of Armstrong’s life, he toured the world with changing All-Stars sextets. It was the period of his greatest popularity; he produced hit recordings such as “Mack the Knife” and “Hello, Dolly!” and outstanding albums such as his tributes to W.C. Handy and Fats Waller.

        In his last years, ill health curtailed his trumpet playing, but he continued as a singer. His last film appearance was in Hello, Dolly! (1969), but his most memorable film role may well be as narrator of and bandleader in the 1956 hit musical High Society, also starring Frank Sinatra, Bing Crosby, and Grace Kelly.

        More than a great trumpeter, Armstrong was a bandleader, singer, soloist, film star, and comedian. One of his most remarkable feats was his frequent conquest of the popular market. He nonetheless made his greatest impact
        on the evolution of jazz itself, which at the start of his career was popularly considered to be little more than a novelty. With his great sensitivity, technique, and capacity to express emotion, Armstrong not only ensured the survival of jazz but led in its development into a fine art.

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        Louis Armstrong Greatest Hits Full Album – Best Songs of Louis Armstrong

        Track List:

        [00:00:00] 01. What a Wonderful World [00:02:17] 02. Hello Dolly [00:04:45] 03. Potato Head Blues [00:07:42] 04. Heebie Jeebies [00:10:52] 05. La Vie En Rose [00:14:17] 06. Ain’t Misbehavin’ [00:18:19] 07. When the Saints Go Marching In [00:21:02] 08. Mack the Knife

        [00:24:31] 09. St. Louis Blues [00:33:22] 10. All of Me [00:33:22] 11. Gut Bucket Blues [00:36:12] 12. West End Blues [00:39:34] 13. A Kiss to Build a Dream On [00:42:38] 14. We Have All the Time In the World [00:00:00] 15. Porgy and Bess [00:45:52] 16. Back Home Again In Indiana

        [00:50:04] 17. Go Down Moses [00:53:44] 18. When You’re Smiling [00:57:56] 19. Zat You, Santa Claus [01:00:49] 20. That’s My Home [01:04:01] 21. Swing Low, Sweet Chariot

        The 100 most inspiring musicians of all Time

        Kurt Weill: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

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        Kurt Weill: the 100 most inspiring musicians of all time

        German-born American composer Kurt Julian Weill (b. March 2, 1900, Dessau, Ger.—d. April 3, 1950, New York, N.Y., U.S.) created a revolutionary kind of opera of sharp social satire in collaboration with the writer Bertolt Brecht.

        Weill studied privately with Albert Bing and at the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik in Berlin with Engelbert Humperdinck. He gained some experience as an opera coach and conductor in Dessau and Lüdenscheid (1919–20). Settling in Berlin, he studied (1921–24) under Ferruccio
        Busoni, beginning as a composer of instrumental works. His early music was expressionistic, experimental, and abstract.

        His first two operas, Der Protagonist (one act, libretto by Georg Kaiser, 1926) and Royal Palace (1927), established his position, with Ernst Krenek and Paul Hindemith, as among Germany’s most promising young opera composers.

        Weill’s first collaboration as composer with Bertolt Brecht was on the singspiel (or “songspiel,” as he called it) Mahagonny (1927), which was a succès de scandale at the Baden-Baden (Germany) Festival in 1927. This work sharply satirizes life in an imaginary America that is also Germany.

        Weill then wrote the music and Brecht provided the libretto for Die Dreigroschenoper (1928; The Threepenny Opera), which was a transposition of John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera (1728) with the 18th-century thieves, highwaymen, jailers, and their women turned into typical characters in the Berlin underworld of the 1920s. This work established both the topical opera and the reputations of the composer and librettist.

        Weill’s music for it was in turn harsh, mordant, jazzy, and hauntingly melancholy. Mahagonny was elaborated as a fulllength opera, Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny (composed 1927–29; “Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny”), and first presented in Leipzig in 1930. Widely considered Weill’s masterpiece, the opera’s music showed a skillful synthesis of American popular music, ragtime, and jazz.

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        Weill’s wife, the actress Lotte Lenya (married 1926), sang for the first time in Mahagonny and was a great success in it and in Die Dreigroschenoper. These works aroused much controversy, as did the students’ opera Der Jasager (1930; “The Yea-Sayer,” with Brecht) and the cantata Der
        Lindberghflug (1928; “Lindbergh’s Flight,” with Brecht and Hindemith). After the production of the opera Die Bürgschaft (1932; “Trust,” libretto by Caspar Neher), Weill’s political and musical ideas and his Jewish birth made him persona non grata to the Nazis, and he left Berlin for Paris
        and then for London. His music was banned in Germany until after World War II.

        Weill and his wife divorced in 1933 but remarried in 1937 in New York City, where he resumed his career. He wrote music for plays, including Paul Green’s Johnny Johnson (1936) and Franz Werfel’s Eternal Road (1937). His operetta Knickerbocker Holiday appeared in 1938 with a libretto by Maxwell Anderson, followed by the musical play Lady in the Dark (1941; libretto and lyrics by Moss Hart and Ira Gershwin), the musical comedy One Touch of Venus (1943; with S.J. Perelman and Ogden Nash), the musical version of Elmer Rice’s Street Scene (1947), and the musical tragedy Lost in the Stars (1949; with Maxwell Anderson).

        Weill’s American folk opera Down in the Valley (1948) was much performed. Two of his songs, the “Morität” (“Mack the Knife”) from Die Dreigroschenoper and “September Song” from Knickerbocker Holiday, have remained popular.

        Weill’s Concerto for violin, woodwinds, double bass, and percussion (1924), Symphony No. 1 (1921; “Berliner Sinfonie”), and Symphony No. 2 (1934; “Pariser Symphonie”), works praised for their qualities of invention
        and compositional skill, were revived after his death.

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        Lost in the Stars: The Music of Kurt Weill

        Track List:

        “Introduction from Mahagonny-Songspiel” – Steve Weisberg – 00:00 “The Ballad of Mac The Knife” (from The Threepenny Opera) – Sting and Dominic Muldowney – 0:48 “The Cannon Song” (from The Threepenny Opera) – The Fowler Brothers and Stan Ridgway – 3:36 “Ballad of the Soldier’s Wife” – Marianne Faithfull and Chris Spedding – 5:49 “Johnny Johnson Medley” – Van Dyke Parks – 10:12 “The Great Hall” – Henry Threadgill – 15:52 “Alabama Song” (from Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny) – Ralph Schuckett with Richard Butler, Bob Dorough, Ellen Shipley and John Petersen –

        19:30 “Youkali Tango” – Armadillo String Quartet – 23:57 “Der Kleine Leutnant Des Lieben Gottes” (The Little Lieutenant of the Loving God) (from Happy End) – John Zorn – 28:38 “Johnny’s Speech” – Van Dyke Parks – 34:01 “September Song” (from Knickerbocker Holiday) – Lou Reed – 35:45 “Lost in the Stars” – Carla Bley with Phil Woods – 40:03 “What Keeps Mankind Alive?” (from The Threepenny Opera) – Tom Waits – 46:16 “Klops Lied” (Meatball Song) – Elliott Sharp –

        48:28 “Surabaya Johnny” (from Happy End) – Dagmar Krause – 49:16 “Oh Heavenly Salvation” (from Mahagonny) – Mark Bingham with Johnny Adams and Aaron Neville – 53:23 “Call From The Grave/Ballad In Which MacHeath Begs All Men For Forgiveness” (from The Threepenny Opera) – Todd Rundgren with Gary Windo – 56:58 “Speak Low” (from One Touch of Venus) – Charlie Haden and Sharon Freeman – 1:02:20 “In No Man’s Land” (from Johnny Johnson) – Van Dyke Parks – 1:06:42